A Framework for Realistic Virtual Representation for Immersive Training Environments.

Caolan Plumb, Farzad Rahimian, Diptangshu Pandit, Hannah Thomas, Nigel Clark

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution


As mixed-reality (XR) technology becomes more available, virtually simulated training scenarios have shown great potential in enhancing training effectiveness. Realistic virtual representation plays a crucial role in creating immersive experiences that closely mimic real-world scenarios. With reference to previous methodological developments in the creation of information-rich digital reconstructions, this paper proposes a framework encompassing key components of the 3D scanning pipeline. While 3D scanning techniques have advanced significantly, several challenges persist in the field. These challenges include data acquisition, noise reduction, mesh and texture optimisation, and separation of components for independent interaction. These complexities necessitate the search for an optimised framework that addresses these challenges and provides practical solutions for creating realistic virtual representations in immersive training environments. The following exploration acknowledges and addresses challenges presented by the photogrammetry and laser-scanning pipeline, seeking to prepare scanned assets for real-time virtual simulation in a games-engine. This methodology employs both a camera and handheld laser-scanner for accurate data acquisition. Reality Capture is used to combine the geometric data and surface detail of the equipment. To clean the scanned asset, Blender is used for mesh retopology and reprojection of scanned textures, and attention given to correct lighting details and normal mapping, thus preparing the equipment to be interacted with by Virtual Reality (VR) users within Unreal Engine. By combining these elements, the proposed framework enables realistic representation of industrial equipment for the creation of training scenarios that closely resemble real-world contexts.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationProceedings of the 23rd International Conference on Construction Applications of Virtual Reality
EditorsPietro Capone, Vito Getuli, Farzad Pour Rahimian, Nashwan Dawood, Alessandro Bruttini, Tommaso Sorbi
PublisherFirenze University Press
Number of pages14
Publication statusPublished - 13 Nov 2023
Event23rd International Conference on Construction Applications of Virtual Reality: CONVR 2023 - University of Florence, Florence, Italy
Duration: 13 Nov 202316 Nov 2023


Conference23rd International Conference on Construction Applications of Virtual Reality
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