A positive, single-stranded RNA virus is identified from the transcriptome of Probopyrinella latreuticola Gissler, 1882; a bopyrid isopod parasite of the Sargassum shrimp, Latreutes fucorum Fabricius, 1789. The viral sequence is 13,098 bp in length (including polyA), encoding four open reading frames (ORF). ORF-1 encodes a polyprotein, with three computationally discernible functional domains: viral methyltransferase; viral helicase; and RNA-directed RNA polymerase. The remaining ORFs encode a transmembrane protein, a capsid protein and a protein of undetermined function. The raw transcriptomic data reveal a low level of background single nucleotide mutations within the data. Comparison of the protein sequence data and synteny with other viral isolates reveals that the greatest protein similarity (<39%) is shared with the Negevirus group, a group that exclusively infects insects. Phylogenetic assessment of the individual polyprotein domains revealed a mixed prediction of phylogenetic origins, suggesting with low confidence that the novel +ssRNA virus could be present in multiple places throughout the individual gene trees. A concatenated approach strongly suggested that this new virus is an early diverging isolate, branching before the Negevirus and Cilevirus groups. Alongside the new isolate are other marine viruses, also present toward the base of the tree. The isopod virosphere, with the addition of this novel virus, is discussed relative to viral genomics/systematics. A great diversity of nege-like viruses appears to be present in marine invertebrate hosts, which require greater efforts for discovery and identification.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This project was funded by personal grants at the University of Florida (USA) to DCB, and at Teesside University (UK) to JB.
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