Crop diversification is one of the most cost-effective way of reducing uncertainties in farmer's income, especially among poor smallholder farmers. However, poverty is a complex concept, which includes more dimensions than only income. This review investigates the contribution of crop diversification to Sustainable Development Goal 1(SDG1) “No poverty” by also considering other dimensions of poverty, namely gender equality, food security and nutrition, and vulnerability to climate change. It demonstrates that the contribution of crop diversification to food security and nutrition, gender equality, and reduction of poor farmers' vulnerability to climate change has not been properly researched. Several factors across the studies analysed were found to influence the implementation of crop diversification, but these were hardly connected to poverty reduction. New research and policy impact evaluation methods that follow a sustainability approach perspective to poverty need to be undertaken in order to assess the contribution of crop diversification to SDG1.