Analysis of fatty acid profiles of free fatty acids generated in deep-frying process

Naser Bazina, Jibin He

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

During the deep fat food frying process, the frying media, oil, continuously degenerates when exposed to high temperature, oxygen and moisture. This leads to physical and chemical changes including the formation of hydrolysis products such as Free Fatty Acids (FFAs) which are associated with undesirable darkening in colour, off-flavouring and a lowering of the smoke point. This study was aiming to develop a method capable of identifying and quantifying individual free fatty acids within oil using a small sample size (100mg of oil). We used liquid/liquid extraction (LLE) technique to separate FFAs from the rest of the oil followed by esterification using boron trifluoride (BF3) and then gas chromatography (GC) analysis. Various extraction conditions were tested. A mixture of 0.02M phosphate buffer at pH 12 and acetonitrile at buffer: solvent ratio larger than 2:1 showed the highest efficiency in extraction of FFAs. The method was capable of producing accurate fatty acid profiles of FFAs and showed good precision on medium rancidity oil samples. It also captured the differences induced by adding free fatty acids to samples. An interesting discrepancy was found between the new method and the traditional titration method in terms of overall FFA content, which suggests further optimisation and investigation are required.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3085-3092
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Food Science and Technology
Volume55
Issue number8
Early online date16 May 2018
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 31 Aug 2018

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deep fat frying
Nonesterified Fatty Acids
free fatty acids
Fatty Acids
fatty acid composition
Oils
oils
frying
Buffers
buffers
methodology
Liquid-Liquid Extraction
rancidity
Esterification
flavorings
esterification
titration
boron
sampling
Smoke

Cite this

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abstract = "During the deep fat food frying process, the frying media, oil, continuously degenerates when exposed to high temperature, oxygen and moisture. This leads to physical and chemical changes including the formation of hydrolysis products such as Free Fatty Acids (FFAs) which are associated with undesirable darkening in colour, off-flavouring and a lowering of the smoke point. This study was aiming to develop a method capable of identifying and quantifying individual free fatty acids within oil using a small sample size (100mg of oil). We used liquid/liquid extraction (LLE) technique to separate FFAs from the rest of the oil followed by esterification using boron trifluoride (BF3) and then gas chromatography (GC) analysis. Various extraction conditions were tested. A mixture of 0.02M phosphate buffer at pH 12 and acetonitrile at buffer: solvent ratio larger than 2:1 showed the highest efficiency in extraction of FFAs. The method was capable of producing accurate fatty acid profiles of FFAs and showed good precision on medium rancidity oil samples. It also captured the differences induced by adding free fatty acids to samples. An interesting discrepancy was found between the new method and the traditional titration method in terms of overall FFA content, which suggests further optimisation and investigation are required.",
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Analysis of fatty acid profiles of free fatty acids generated in deep-frying process. / Bazina, Naser; He, Jibin.

In: Journal of Food Science and Technology, Vol. 55, No. 8, 31.08.2018, p. 3085-3092.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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