Analysis of repeated measurements in physical therapy research

Greg Atkinson

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    48 Citations (Scopus)


    In this paper, I attempt to introduce physical therapists to the most common statistical tests for analysing differences between repeated measurements over time. Using the example of 'whole-body flexibility' recorded at six different times of day and the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS), I discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the various approaches for analysing a simple one-factor design. The most important issues in test selection for repeated measures are the exploration of, and correction for, the violation of 'sphericity' when employing a univariate general linear model (GLM), as well as the sample size when adopting a multivariate GLM. I summarize current advice on choice of test with the aid of a 'decision tree', based on the results of documented statistical simulations which have investigated how the various statistical tests 'perform' in certain situations. Lastly, I comment on the most appropriate ways to present and interpret data drawn from serial measurements.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)194-208
    Number of pages15
    JournalPhysical Therapy in Sport
    Issue number4
    Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2001


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