Automatic expressive deformations for implying and stylizing motion

Paul Noble, Wen Tang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)


Three-dimensional computer animation often struggles to compete with the flexibility and expressiveness commonly found in traditional animation, particularly when rendered non-photorealistically. We present an animation tool that takes skeleton-driven 3D computer animations and generates expressive deformations to the character geometry. The technique is based upon the cartooning and animation concepts of "lines of action" and "lines of motion" and automatically infuses computer animations with some of the expressiveness displayed by traditional animation. Motion and pose-based expressive deformations are generated from the motion data and the character geometry is warped along each limb's individual line of motion. The effect of this subtle, yet significant, warping is twofold: geometric inter-frame consistency is increased which helps create visually smoother animated sequences, and the warped geometry provides a novel solution to the problem of implied motion in non-photorealistic imagery. Object-space and image-space versions of the algorithm have been implemented and are presented.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)523-533
Number of pages11
JournalVisual Computer
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jul 2007


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