Biomarkers for the assessment of exposure to fluoride in children

Oladipo Idowu, Ralph Marsland Duckworth, Ruth A. Valentine, Vida Zohoori

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Abstract

Due to practical difficulties in quantifying fluoride exposure, the ability of various biomarkers to predict 2it has been investigated previously. However, the results are inadequate for validation of their 3application and usefulness. This study aimed to investigate the association between 4contemporary/recent biomarkers of fluoride exposure and total daily fluoride intake (TDFI) of children 5with large differences in fluoride exposure through drinking water. TDFI was assessed in 61 healthy 4 6to 5 years old children who provided at least one biomarker sample; 32 lived in a low-fluoride area 7(0.04 mgF/L) and 29 lived in a high-fluoride area (3.05 mgF/L). Validated questionnaires were 8administered to evaluate fluoride intake from diets (including water) and toothpaste ingestion. Daily 9urinary fluoride excretion (UFE) as well as fluoride concentrations in plasma, fasting whole saliva, hair 10and nails (toenails/fingernails) were evaluated and related to total fluoride exposure. TDFI, UFE and 11fluoride concentration of biomarkers were statistically significantly higher in the high-fluoride area than 12in the low-fluoride area. There was a strong statistically significant positive correlation between TDFI 13and: UFE (ρ=0.756, p<0.001); plasma fluoride concentration (ρ=0.770, p<0.001); toenail fluoride 14concentration (ρ=0.604, p<0.001). The statistically significant positive correlationbetween TDFI and 15fingernail fluoride concentration (ρ=470, p<0.001) as well as between TDFI and fasting whole saliva 16fluoride concentration (ρ=0.453, p=0.001) was moderate, whereas it was weak between TDFI and hair 17fluoride concentration (ρ=0.306, p=0.027). In conclusion, the current study confirmed the suitability 18of 24h urine samples for estimating F exposure in children. The strong correlations between TDFI and 19F in plasma and toenails also suggest these biomarkers may be considered for health risk assessments 20of fluoride in children who are susceptible to development of dental fluorosis.
Original languageEnglish
Number of pages24
JournalCaries Research
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2020

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Fluorides
Biomarkers
Nails
Saliva
Hair
Fasting
Dental Fluorosis
Toothpastes
Aptitude

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Idowu, Oladipo ; Duckworth, Ralph Marsland ; Valentine, Ruth A. ; Zohoori, Vida. / Biomarkers for the assessment of exposure to fluoride in children. In: Caries Research. 2020.
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abstract = "Due to practical difficulties in quantifying fluoride exposure, the ability of various biomarkers to predict 2it has been investigated previously. However, the results are inadequate for validation of their 3application and usefulness. This study aimed to investigate the association between 4contemporary/recent biomarkers of fluoride exposure and total daily fluoride intake (TDFI) of children 5with large differences in fluoride exposure through drinking water. TDFI was assessed in 61 healthy 4 6to 5 years old children who provided at least one biomarker sample; 32 lived in a low-fluoride area 7(0.04 mgF/L) and 29 lived in a high-fluoride area (3.05 mgF/L). Validated questionnaires were 8administered to evaluate fluoride intake from diets (including water) and toothpaste ingestion. Daily 9urinary fluoride excretion (UFE) as well as fluoride concentrations in plasma, fasting whole saliva, hair 10and nails (toenails/fingernails) were evaluated and related to total fluoride exposure. TDFI, UFE and 11fluoride concentration of biomarkers were statistically significantly higher in the high-fluoride area than 12in the low-fluoride area. There was a strong statistically significant positive correlation between TDFI 13and: UFE (ρ=0.756, p<0.001); plasma fluoride concentration (ρ=0.770, p<0.001); toenail fluoride 14concentration (ρ=0.604, p<0.001). The statistically significant positive correlationbetween TDFI and 15fingernail fluoride concentration (ρ=470, p<0.001) as well as between TDFI and fasting whole saliva 16fluoride concentration (ρ=0.453, p=0.001) was moderate, whereas it was weak between TDFI and hair 17fluoride concentration (ρ=0.306, p=0.027). In conclusion, the current study confirmed the suitability 18of 24h urine samples for estimating F exposure in children. The strong correlations between TDFI and 19F in plasma and toenails also suggest these biomarkers may be considered for health risk assessments 20of fluoride in children who are susceptible to development of dental fluorosis.",
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Biomarkers for the assessment of exposure to fluoride in children. / Idowu, Oladipo; Duckworth, Ralph Marsland; Valentine, Ruth A.; Zohoori, Vida.

In: Caries Research, 2020.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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T1 - Biomarkers for the assessment of exposure to fluoride in children

AU - Idowu, Oladipo

AU - Duckworth, Ralph Marsland

AU - Valentine, Ruth A.

AU - Zohoori, Vida

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N2 - Due to practical difficulties in quantifying fluoride exposure, the ability of various biomarkers to predict 2it has been investigated previously. However, the results are inadequate for validation of their 3application and usefulness. This study aimed to investigate the association between 4contemporary/recent biomarkers of fluoride exposure and total daily fluoride intake (TDFI) of children 5with large differences in fluoride exposure through drinking water. TDFI was assessed in 61 healthy 4 6to 5 years old children who provided at least one biomarker sample; 32 lived in a low-fluoride area 7(0.04 mgF/L) and 29 lived in a high-fluoride area (3.05 mgF/L). Validated questionnaires were 8administered to evaluate fluoride intake from diets (including water) and toothpaste ingestion. Daily 9urinary fluoride excretion (UFE) as well as fluoride concentrations in plasma, fasting whole saliva, hair 10and nails (toenails/fingernails) were evaluated and related to total fluoride exposure. TDFI, UFE and 11fluoride concentration of biomarkers were statistically significantly higher in the high-fluoride area than 12in the low-fluoride area. There was a strong statistically significant positive correlation between TDFI 13and: UFE (ρ=0.756, p<0.001); plasma fluoride concentration (ρ=0.770, p<0.001); toenail fluoride 14concentration (ρ=0.604, p<0.001). The statistically significant positive correlationbetween TDFI and 15fingernail fluoride concentration (ρ=470, p<0.001) as well as between TDFI and fasting whole saliva 16fluoride concentration (ρ=0.453, p=0.001) was moderate, whereas it was weak between TDFI and hair 17fluoride concentration (ρ=0.306, p=0.027). In conclusion, the current study confirmed the suitability 18of 24h urine samples for estimating F exposure in children. The strong correlations between TDFI and 19F in plasma and toenails also suggest these biomarkers may be considered for health risk assessments 20of fluoride in children who are susceptible to development of dental fluorosis.

AB - Due to practical difficulties in quantifying fluoride exposure, the ability of various biomarkers to predict 2it has been investigated previously. However, the results are inadequate for validation of their 3application and usefulness. This study aimed to investigate the association between 4contemporary/recent biomarkers of fluoride exposure and total daily fluoride intake (TDFI) of children 5with large differences in fluoride exposure through drinking water. TDFI was assessed in 61 healthy 4 6to 5 years old children who provided at least one biomarker sample; 32 lived in a low-fluoride area 7(0.04 mgF/L) and 29 lived in a high-fluoride area (3.05 mgF/L). Validated questionnaires were 8administered to evaluate fluoride intake from diets (including water) and toothpaste ingestion. Daily 9urinary fluoride excretion (UFE) as well as fluoride concentrations in plasma, fasting whole saliva, hair 10and nails (toenails/fingernails) were evaluated and related to total fluoride exposure. TDFI, UFE and 11fluoride concentration of biomarkers were statistically significantly higher in the high-fluoride area than 12in the low-fluoride area. There was a strong statistically significant positive correlation between TDFI 13and: UFE (ρ=0.756, p<0.001); plasma fluoride concentration (ρ=0.770, p<0.001); toenail fluoride 14concentration (ρ=0.604, p<0.001). The statistically significant positive correlationbetween TDFI and 15fingernail fluoride concentration (ρ=470, p<0.001) as well as between TDFI and fasting whole saliva 16fluoride concentration (ρ=0.453, p=0.001) was moderate, whereas it was weak between TDFI and hair 17fluoride concentration (ρ=0.306, p=0.027). In conclusion, the current study confirmed the suitability 18of 24h urine samples for estimating F exposure in children. The strong correlations between TDFI and 19F in plasma and toenails also suggest these biomarkers may be considered for health risk assessments 20of fluoride in children who are susceptible to development of dental fluorosis.

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DO - 10.1159/000504166

M3 - Article

JO - Caries Research

JF - Caries Research

SN - 0008-6568

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