Bibliographical noteThis is the second article in a two part Continuing Education (CE) series on managing patients with Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD). The first CE article addressed the management of patients during CKD stages 1 to 3. This article will focus on the management of patients during CKD stages 4 to 5. Nephrology nurses and other healthcare professionals play an important role in the monitoring and management of the many physical symptoms that patients present with during stages 4 to 5. During these stages the healthcare team must provide psychological support along with educating patients and their families/carers regarding their treatment options including renal replacement therapy, conservative treatment and withdrawal of dialysis.
Murphy, F. F., Jenkins, K. K., McCann, M. M., & Sedgewick, J. J. (2008). CE: Continuing Education article. Patient management in chronic kidney disease stages 4 to 5. Journal of Renal Care, 34(4). https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1755-6686.2008.00042.x