Constructive Misalignment? Learning outcomes and effectiveness in teamwork-based experiential entrepreneurship education assessment

Jonathan Scott, John L. Thompson, Andy Penaluna

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Abstract

Objectives: Despite extensive research on experiential entrepreneurship education (EEE), we know little about how these approaches contribute towards effective achievement of learning outcomes (LOs), particularly in terms of opportunity discovery and exploitation. We critically appraised how experiential approaches enhance the achievement of learning outcomes (LOs) in teamwork-based entrepreneurship education assessment. Prior Work: Extant EEE research tends to focus upon “good practice”, rather than establishing its impact upon students. The argument for experiential approaches is two-fold but with a missing third fold (Scott et al, 2016): (1) ‘Traditional’ programmes, which rely upon lectures or other directed, non-experiential approaches to entrepreneurship education, are not effectively achieving their objectives, or these objectives are not ambitious enough to achieve effective outcomes; (2) Experiential approaches are an interactive, participative, realistic, viable and potentially more effective alternative to these ‘traditional’ approaches and include, for example, simulation etc; and (3) There is a lack of evidence on their effectiveness, though with some relatively recent exceptions, alongside a continuing debate about whether entrepreneurship can even be taught. Approach: We adopted an exploratory qualitative analysis of reflective diaries to achieve our objectives. Data were gathered from a purposive and convenience sample of reflective diaries, an individual assessment element of three Masters-level modules (modules 1, 2 and 3), in which there are also group business ideas generation presentations and a report. We subjected the text to rigorous content analysis (Silverman, 2004, 2010; Eriksson and Kovalainen, 2008; Curtis and Curtis, 2011), which often adds a positivistic epistemological flavour to qualitative research, and our text was partially quantified to enable in-depth qualitative analysis. Results: Our analysis of student reflective diaries revealed that, while a number of LOs were met in relation to teamwork and communication, those related to innovation (i.e. generating a business idea) were much more modest. Yet, students experienced negative aspects which have become learning opportunities, such as linguistic-cultural challenges and overcoming nonparticipation/freeriding. Although Biggs (2003) has argued the need for constructive alignment in course design, in fact some of these unexpected LOs suggest the possibility that constructive misalignment could, in certain circumstances (e.g. experiential entrepreneurship education), be a positive pedagogical outcome. Implications and Value: There is, however, still little evidence that EEE is more effective than other approaches that have traditionally been adopted.
Original languageEnglish
Publication statusPublished - 11 Nov 2015
EventInstitute for Small Business and Entrepreneurship Conference 2015 - Technology Innovation Centre, Glasgow, United Kingdom
Duration: 11 Nov 201512 Nov 2015

Conference

ConferenceInstitute for Small Business and Entrepreneurship Conference 2015
CountryUnited Kingdom
CityGlasgow
Period11/11/1512/11/15

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teamwork
entrepreneurship
learning
education
student
best practice
evidence
qualitative research
exploitation
content analysis
innovation
linguistics
simulation
communication
lack
Values
Group

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Scott, J., Thompson, J. L., & Penaluna, A. (2015). Constructive Misalignment? Learning outcomes and effectiveness in teamwork-based experiential entrepreneurship education assessment. Paper presented at Institute for Small Business and Entrepreneurship Conference 2015, Glasgow, United Kingdom.
Scott, Jonathan ; Thompson, John L. ; Penaluna, Andy. / Constructive Misalignment? Learning outcomes and effectiveness in teamwork-based experiential entrepreneurship education assessment. Paper presented at Institute for Small Business and Entrepreneurship Conference 2015, Glasgow, United Kingdom.
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abstract = "Objectives: Despite extensive research on experiential entrepreneurship education (EEE), we know little about how these approaches contribute towards effective achievement of learning outcomes (LOs), particularly in terms of opportunity discovery and exploitation. We critically appraised how experiential approaches enhance the achievement of learning outcomes (LOs) in teamwork-based entrepreneurship education assessment. Prior Work: Extant EEE research tends to focus upon “good practice”, rather than establishing its impact upon students. The argument for experiential approaches is two-fold but with a missing third fold (Scott et al, 2016): (1) ‘Traditional’ programmes, which rely upon lectures or other directed, non-experiential approaches to entrepreneurship education, are not effectively achieving their objectives, or these objectives are not ambitious enough to achieve effective outcomes; (2) Experiential approaches are an interactive, participative, realistic, viable and potentially more effective alternative to these ‘traditional’ approaches and include, for example, simulation etc; and (3) There is a lack of evidence on their effectiveness, though with some relatively recent exceptions, alongside a continuing debate about whether entrepreneurship can even be taught. Approach: We adopted an exploratory qualitative analysis of reflective diaries to achieve our objectives. Data were gathered from a purposive and convenience sample of reflective diaries, an individual assessment element of three Masters-level modules (modules 1, 2 and 3), in which there are also group business ideas generation presentations and a report. We subjected the text to rigorous content analysis (Silverman, 2004, 2010; Eriksson and Kovalainen, 2008; Curtis and Curtis, 2011), which often adds a positivistic epistemological flavour to qualitative research, and our text was partially quantified to enable in-depth qualitative analysis. Results: Our analysis of student reflective diaries revealed that, while a number of LOs were met in relation to teamwork and communication, those related to innovation (i.e. generating a business idea) were much more modest. Yet, students experienced negative aspects which have become learning opportunities, such as linguistic-cultural challenges and overcoming nonparticipation/freeriding. Although Biggs (2003) has argued the need for constructive alignment in course design, in fact some of these unexpected LOs suggest the possibility that constructive misalignment could, in certain circumstances (e.g. experiential entrepreneurship education), be a positive pedagogical outcome. Implications and Value: There is, however, still little evidence that EEE is more effective than other approaches that have traditionally been adopted.",
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Scott, J, Thompson, JL & Penaluna, A 2015, 'Constructive Misalignment? Learning outcomes and effectiveness in teamwork-based experiential entrepreneurship education assessment' Paper presented at Institute for Small Business and Entrepreneurship Conference 2015, Glasgow, United Kingdom, 11/11/15 - 12/11/15, .

Constructive Misalignment? Learning outcomes and effectiveness in teamwork-based experiential entrepreneurship education assessment. / Scott, Jonathan; Thompson, John L.; Penaluna, Andy.

2015. Paper presented at Institute for Small Business and Entrepreneurship Conference 2015, Glasgow, United Kingdom.

Research output: Contribution to conferencePaperResearchpeer-review

TY - CONF

T1 - Constructive Misalignment? Learning outcomes and effectiveness in teamwork-based experiential entrepreneurship education assessment

AU - Scott, Jonathan

AU - Thompson, John L.

AU - Penaluna, Andy

PY - 2015/11/11

Y1 - 2015/11/11

N2 - Objectives: Despite extensive research on experiential entrepreneurship education (EEE), we know little about how these approaches contribute towards effective achievement of learning outcomes (LOs), particularly in terms of opportunity discovery and exploitation. We critically appraised how experiential approaches enhance the achievement of learning outcomes (LOs) in teamwork-based entrepreneurship education assessment. Prior Work: Extant EEE research tends to focus upon “good practice”, rather than establishing its impact upon students. The argument for experiential approaches is two-fold but with a missing third fold (Scott et al, 2016): (1) ‘Traditional’ programmes, which rely upon lectures or other directed, non-experiential approaches to entrepreneurship education, are not effectively achieving their objectives, or these objectives are not ambitious enough to achieve effective outcomes; (2) Experiential approaches are an interactive, participative, realistic, viable and potentially more effective alternative to these ‘traditional’ approaches and include, for example, simulation etc; and (3) There is a lack of evidence on their effectiveness, though with some relatively recent exceptions, alongside a continuing debate about whether entrepreneurship can even be taught. Approach: We adopted an exploratory qualitative analysis of reflective diaries to achieve our objectives. Data were gathered from a purposive and convenience sample of reflective diaries, an individual assessment element of three Masters-level modules (modules 1, 2 and 3), in which there are also group business ideas generation presentations and a report. We subjected the text to rigorous content analysis (Silverman, 2004, 2010; Eriksson and Kovalainen, 2008; Curtis and Curtis, 2011), which often adds a positivistic epistemological flavour to qualitative research, and our text was partially quantified to enable in-depth qualitative analysis. Results: Our analysis of student reflective diaries revealed that, while a number of LOs were met in relation to teamwork and communication, those related to innovation (i.e. generating a business idea) were much more modest. Yet, students experienced negative aspects which have become learning opportunities, such as linguistic-cultural challenges and overcoming nonparticipation/freeriding. Although Biggs (2003) has argued the need for constructive alignment in course design, in fact some of these unexpected LOs suggest the possibility that constructive misalignment could, in certain circumstances (e.g. experiential entrepreneurship education), be a positive pedagogical outcome. Implications and Value: There is, however, still little evidence that EEE is more effective than other approaches that have traditionally been adopted.

AB - Objectives: Despite extensive research on experiential entrepreneurship education (EEE), we know little about how these approaches contribute towards effective achievement of learning outcomes (LOs), particularly in terms of opportunity discovery and exploitation. We critically appraised how experiential approaches enhance the achievement of learning outcomes (LOs) in teamwork-based entrepreneurship education assessment. Prior Work: Extant EEE research tends to focus upon “good practice”, rather than establishing its impact upon students. The argument for experiential approaches is two-fold but with a missing third fold (Scott et al, 2016): (1) ‘Traditional’ programmes, which rely upon lectures or other directed, non-experiential approaches to entrepreneurship education, are not effectively achieving their objectives, or these objectives are not ambitious enough to achieve effective outcomes; (2) Experiential approaches are an interactive, participative, realistic, viable and potentially more effective alternative to these ‘traditional’ approaches and include, for example, simulation etc; and (3) There is a lack of evidence on their effectiveness, though with some relatively recent exceptions, alongside a continuing debate about whether entrepreneurship can even be taught. Approach: We adopted an exploratory qualitative analysis of reflective diaries to achieve our objectives. Data were gathered from a purposive and convenience sample of reflective diaries, an individual assessment element of three Masters-level modules (modules 1, 2 and 3), in which there are also group business ideas generation presentations and a report. We subjected the text to rigorous content analysis (Silverman, 2004, 2010; Eriksson and Kovalainen, 2008; Curtis and Curtis, 2011), which often adds a positivistic epistemological flavour to qualitative research, and our text was partially quantified to enable in-depth qualitative analysis. Results: Our analysis of student reflective diaries revealed that, while a number of LOs were met in relation to teamwork and communication, those related to innovation (i.e. generating a business idea) were much more modest. Yet, students experienced negative aspects which have become learning opportunities, such as linguistic-cultural challenges and overcoming nonparticipation/freeriding. Although Biggs (2003) has argued the need for constructive alignment in course design, in fact some of these unexpected LOs suggest the possibility that constructive misalignment could, in certain circumstances (e.g. experiential entrepreneurship education), be a positive pedagogical outcome. Implications and Value: There is, however, still little evidence that EEE is more effective than other approaches that have traditionally been adopted.

M3 - Paper

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Scott J, Thompson JL, Penaluna A. Constructive Misalignment? Learning outcomes and effectiveness in teamwork-based experiential entrepreneurship education assessment. 2015. Paper presented at Institute for Small Business and Entrepreneurship Conference 2015, Glasgow, United Kingdom.