Current Challenges and Future Research Directions in Augmented Reality for Education

Muhammad Zahid Iqbal, Eleni Mangina, Abraham G. Campbell

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The progression and adoption of innovative learning methodologies signify that a respective part of society is open to new technologies and ideas and thus is advancing. The latest innovation in teaching is the use of Augmented Reality (AR). Applications using this technology have been deployed successfully in STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics) education for delivering the practical and creative parts of teaching. Since AR technology already has a large volume of published studies about education that reports advantages, limitations, effectiveness, and challenges, classifying these projects will allow for a review of the success in the different educational settings and discover current challenges and future research areas. Due to COVID-19, the landscape of technology-enhanced learning has shifted more toward blended learning, personalized learning spaces and user-centered approach with safety measures. The main findings of this paper include a review of the current literature, investigating the challenges, identifying future research areas, and finally, reporting on the development of two case studies that can highlight the first steps needed to address these research areas. The result of this research ultimately details the research gap required to facilitate real-time touchless hand interaction, kinesthetic learning, and machine learning agents with a remote learning pedagogy.

Original languageEnglish
Article number75
Number of pages29
JournalMultimodal Technologies and Interaction
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - 1 Sep 2022
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This research is funded by University College Dublin, Ireland and Beijing-Dublin International College (BDIC), Beijing. The APC was funded by BDIC.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 by the authors.


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