Deep drilling reveals massive shifts in evolutionary dynamics after formation of ancient ecosystem

Thomas Wilke, Torsten Hauffe, Elena Jovanovska, Aleksandra Cvetkoska, Timme Donders, Klemens Ekschmitt, Alexander Francke, Jack H. Lacey, Zlatko Levkov, Charles R. Marshall, Thomas A. Neubauer, Daniele Silvestro, Björn Stelbrink, Hendrik Vogel, Christian Albrecht, Jens Holtvoeth, Sebastian Krastel, Niklas Leicher, Melanie J. Leng, Katja LindhorstAlessia Masi, Nadja Ognjanova-Rumenova, Konstantinos Panagiotopoulos, Jane M. Reed, Laura Sadori, Slavica Tofilovska, Bert Van Bocxlaer, Friederike Wagner-Cremer, Frank P. Wesselingh, Volkmar Wolters, Giovanni Zanchetta, Xiaosen Zhang, Bernd Wagner

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Abstract

The scarcity of high-resolution empirical data directly tracking diversity over time limits our understanding of speciation and extinction dynamics and the drivers of rate changes. Here, we analyze a continuous species-level fossil record of endemic diatoms from ancient Lake Ohrid, along with environmental and climate indicator time series since lake formation 1.36 million years (Ma) ago. We show that speciation and extinction rates nearly simultaneously decreased in the environmentally dynamic phase after ecosystem formation and stabilized after deep-water conditions established in Lake Ohrid. As the lake deepens, we also see a switch in the macroevolutionary trade-off, resulting in a transition from a volatile assemblage of short-lived endemic species to a stable community of long-lived species. Our results emphasize the importance of the interplay between environmental/climate change, ecosystem stability, and environmental limits to diversity for diversification processes. The study also provides a new understanding of evolutionary dynamics in long-lived ecosystems.
Original languageEnglish
Article numbereabb2943
JournalScience advances
Volume6
Issue number40
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 30 Sep 2020

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The Hydrobiological Institute in Ohrid (S. Trajanovski and G. Kostoski), the Hydrometeorological Institute in Tirana (M. Sanxhaku and B. Lushaj), and the Faculty of Geology and Mineralogy, University of Tirana (A. Grazhdani) provided logistic support for the scientific drilling campaign. Drilling was carried out by Drilling, Observation, and Sampling of the Earth's Continental Crust (DOSECC). Computational resources were provided by the de.NBI Cloud within the German Network for Bioinformatics Infrastructure (de.NBI). G. L. Simpson contributed to the discussion on the paleoecological time series analyses, and W. Salzburger on evolutionary processes in ancient lakes. The SCOPSCO drilling project was funded by the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP; 03-2009), the German Ministry of Higher Education and Research (BMBF; 03G0825A), the German Research Foundation (DFG; WI 1902/8, WI 1902/13 and WA 2109/11, WA 2109/13), the University of Cologne, the British Geological Survey (IP-1579-1115), the Italian Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (CNR), the Swiss National Science Foundation (PCEFP3_187012; FN-1749), the Swedish Research Council (2019-04739), and the governments of the republics of North Macedonia and Albania

Publisher Copyright:
© 2020 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works. Distributed under a Creative Commons Attribution NonCommercial License 4.0 (CC BY-NC).

Copyright:
Copyright 2020 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.

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