Development of 4D based performance indicators in construction industry

Nashwan N Dawood, Sushant Sikka

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


    Purpose: Despite its benefits, the uptake of 4D planning in the construction industry is slow and therefore there is a need to demonstrate its value over traditional planning technologies. The aim of this paper is to develop a novel approach that demonstrates the value of 4D tools to the construction industry. Design/methodology/approach: The research strategy utilised draws on several social science research methods. The data collection methods employed included a literature review, an open-ended questionnaire, surveys, semi-structured interviews and the analysis of historical site records. The data collected were analysed using qualitative and quantitative techniques in order to identify, develop and quantify 4D-based key performance indicators. Findings: This paper identifies and quantifies 4D-based key performance indicators using case study analysis. In the case studies it was found that, on average, a 17 per cent increase in planning efficiency were achieved by the use of 4D technology, while the communication efficiency measure illustrated that, on average, a 30 per cent reduction in the time used for meetings was achieved by the use of 4D planning. Practical implications: The complexity and rapid pace of development in today's construction projects are challenging the industry to find new innovative approaches to delivering projects. 4D tools are emerging as a construction planning technology that addresses some of these challenges. 4D planning has the potential to improve the visualisation of building design and construction, but its implementation in the industry has yet to reach maturity. Originality/value: The paper highlights technology that enables clients, contractors, planners and sub-contractors to visualise and understand design and scheduling issues at the early stages of a project.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)438-458
    JournalEngineering, Construction and Architectural Management
    Issue number5
    Publication statusPublished - 2009


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