Diet, physical activity and behavioural interventions for the treatment of overweight or obese children from the age of 6 to 11 years

Emma Mead, Tamara Brown, Karen Rees, Liane Azevedo, Victoria Whittaker, Daniel Jones, Omotayo Olajide, G. M Mainardi, Eva Corpeleijn, Claire O'Malley, Elizabeth Beardsmore, Lena Al-Khudairy, Louise Baur, Maria-Inti Metzendorf, Alessandro Demaio, Louisa Ells

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Abstract

Background: Child and adolescent overweight and obesity has increased globally, and can be associated with significant short- and longterm health consequences. This is an update of a Cochrane Review published first in 2003, and updated previously in 2009. However, the update has now been split into six reviews addressing different childhood obesity treatments at different ages.
Objectives: To assess the effects of diet, physical activity and behavioural interventions (behaviour-changing interventions) for the treatment of overweight or obese children aged 6 to 11 years.
Search methods: We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, CINAHL, LILACS as well as trial registers ClinicalTrials.gov and RsdI1401 Diet, physical activity and behavioural interventions for the treatment of overweight or obese children from the ICTRP Search Portal. We checked references of studies and systematic reviews. We did not apply any language restrictions. The date of the last search was July 2016 for all databases.
Selection criteria: We selected randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of diet, physical activity, and behavioural interventions (behaviour-changing interventions) for treating overweight or obese children aged 6 to 11 years, with a minimum of six months' follow-up. We excluded interventions that specifically dealt with the treatment of eating disorders or type 2 diabetes, or included participants with a secondary or syndromic cause of obesity.
Data collection and analysis: Two review authors independently screened references, extracted data, assessed risk of bias, and evaluated the quality of the evidence using the GRADE instrument. We contacted study authors for additional information. We carried out metaanalyses according to the statistical guidelines in the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions.
Main results: We included 70 RCTs with a total of 8461 participants randomised to either the intervention or control groups. The number of participants per trial ranged from 16 to 686. Fifty-five trials compared a behaviour-changing intervention with no treatment/usual care control and 15 evaluated the effectiveness of adding an additional component to a behaviour-changing intervention. Sixty-four trials were parallel RCTs, and four were cluster RCTs. Sixty-four trials were multicomponent, two were diet only and four were physical activity only interventions. Ten trials had more than two arms. The overall quality of the evidence was low or very low and 62 trials had a high risk of bias for at least one criterion. Total duration of trials ranged from six months to three years. The median age of participants was 10 years old and the median BMI z score was 2.2.
Primary analyses demonstrated that behaviour-changing interventions compared to no treatment/usual care control at longest follow-up reduced BMI, BMI z score and weight. Mean difference (MD) in BMI was -0.53 kg/m2 (95% confidence interval (CI) -0.82 to -0.24); P < 0.00001; 24 trials; 2785 participants; low-quality evidence. MD in BMI z score was -0.06 units (95% CI -0.10 to -0.02); P = 0.001; 37 trials; 4019 participants; low-quality evidence and MD in weight was -1.45 kg (95% CI -1.88 to -1.02); P < 0.00001; 17 trials; 1774 participants; low-quality evidence.
Thirty-one trials reported on serious adverse events, with 29 trials reporting zero occurrences RR 0.57 (95% CI 0.17 to 1.93); P = 0.37; 4/2105 participants in the behaviour-changing intervention groups compared with 7/1991 participants in the comparator groups). Few trials reported health-related quality of life or behaviour change outcomes, and none of the analyses demonstrated a substantial difference in these outcomes between intervention and control. In two trials reporting on minutes per day of TV viewing, a small reduction of 6.6 minutes per day (95% CI -12.88 to -0.31), P = 0.04; 2 trials; 55 participants) was found in favour of the intervention. No trials reported on all-cause mortality, morbidity or socioeconomic effects, and few trials reported on participant views; none of which could be meta-analysed.
Original languageEnglish
Number of pages499
JournalCochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 22 Jun 2017

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Confidence Intervals
Exercise
Diet
Randomized Controlled Trials
Pediatric Obesity
Therapeutics
Weights and Measures
MEDLINE
Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Patient Selection
Language
Obesity
Quality of Life
Databases
Guidelines
Morbidity
Control Groups
Mortality
Health

Cite this

Mead, Emma ; Brown, Tamara ; Rees, Karen ; Azevedo, Liane ; Whittaker, Victoria ; Jones, Daniel ; Olajide, Omotayo ; Mainardi, G. M ; Corpeleijn, Eva ; O'Malley, Claire ; Beardsmore, Elizabeth ; Al-Khudairy, Lena ; Baur, Louise ; Metzendorf, Maria-Inti ; Demaio, Alessandro ; Ells, Louisa. / Diet, physical activity and behavioural interventions for the treatment of overweight or obese children from the age of 6 to 11 years. In: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2017.
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title = "Diet, physical activity and behavioural interventions for the treatment of overweight or obese children from the age of 6 to 11 years",
abstract = "Background: Child and adolescent overweight and obesity has increased globally, and can be associated with significant short- and longterm health consequences. This is an update of a Cochrane Review published first in 2003, and updated previously in 2009. However, the update has now been split into six reviews addressing different childhood obesity treatments at different ages. Objectives: To assess the effects of diet, physical activity and behavioural interventions (behaviour-changing interventions) for the treatment of overweight or obese children aged 6 to 11 years. Search methods: We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, CINAHL, LILACS as well as trial registers ClinicalTrials.gov and RsdI1401 Diet, physical activity and behavioural interventions for the treatment of overweight or obese children from the ICTRP Search Portal. We checked references of studies and systematic reviews. We did not apply any language restrictions. The date of the last search was July 2016 for all databases. Selection criteria: We selected randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of diet, physical activity, and behavioural interventions (behaviour-changing interventions) for treating overweight or obese children aged 6 to 11 years, with a minimum of six months' follow-up. We excluded interventions that specifically dealt with the treatment of eating disorders or type 2 diabetes, or included participants with a secondary or syndromic cause of obesity. Data collection and analysis: Two review authors independently screened references, extracted data, assessed risk of bias, and evaluated the quality of the evidence using the GRADE instrument. We contacted study authors for additional information. We carried out metaanalyses according to the statistical guidelines in the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. Main results: We included 70 RCTs with a total of 8461 participants randomised to either the intervention or control groups. The number of participants per trial ranged from 16 to 686. Fifty-five trials compared a behaviour-changing intervention with no treatment/usual care control and 15 evaluated the effectiveness of adding an additional component to a behaviour-changing intervention. Sixty-four trials were parallel RCTs, and four were cluster RCTs. Sixty-four trials were multicomponent, two were diet only and four were physical activity only interventions. Ten trials had more than two arms. The overall quality of the evidence was low or very low and 62 trials had a high risk of bias for at least one criterion. Total duration of trials ranged from six months to three years. The median age of participants was 10 years old and the median BMI z score was 2.2. Primary analyses demonstrated that behaviour-changing interventions compared to no treatment/usual care control at longest follow-up reduced BMI, BMI z score and weight. Mean difference (MD) in BMI was -0.53 kg/m2 (95{\%} confidence interval (CI) -0.82 to -0.24); P < 0.00001; 24 trials; 2785 participants; low-quality evidence. MD in BMI z score was -0.06 units (95{\%} CI -0.10 to -0.02); P = 0.001; 37 trials; 4019 participants; low-quality evidence and MD in weight was -1.45 kg (95{\%} CI -1.88 to -1.02); P < 0.00001; 17 trials; 1774 participants; low-quality evidence. Thirty-one trials reported on serious adverse events, with 29 trials reporting zero occurrences RR 0.57 (95{\%} CI 0.17 to 1.93); P = 0.37; 4/2105 participants in the behaviour-changing intervention groups compared with 7/1991 participants in the comparator groups). Few trials reported health-related quality of life or behaviour change outcomes, and none of the analyses demonstrated a substantial difference in these outcomes between intervention and control. In two trials reporting on minutes per day of TV viewing, a small reduction of 6.6 minutes per day (95{\%} CI -12.88 to -0.31), P = 0.04; 2 trials; 55 participants) was found in favour of the intervention. No trials reported on all-cause mortality, morbidity or socioeconomic effects, and few trials reported on participant views; none of which could be meta-analysed.",
author = "Emma Mead and Tamara Brown and Karen Rees and Liane Azevedo and Victoria Whittaker and Daniel Jones and Omotayo Olajide and Mainardi, {G. M} and Eva Corpeleijn and Claire O'Malley and Elizabeth Beardsmore and Lena Al-Khudairy and Louise Baur and Maria-Inti Metzendorf and Alessandro Demaio and Louisa Ells",
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day = "22",
doi = "10.1002/14651858.CD012651",
language = "English",
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Diet, physical activity and behavioural interventions for the treatment of overweight or obese children from the age of 6 to 11 years. / Mead, Emma; Brown, Tamara; Rees, Karen; Azevedo, Liane; Whittaker, Victoria; Jones, Daniel; Olajide, Omotayo; Mainardi, G. M; Corpeleijn, Eva; O'Malley, Claire; Beardsmore, Elizabeth; Al-Khudairy, Lena; Baur, Louise; Metzendorf, Maria-Inti; Demaio, Alessandro; Ells, Louisa.

In: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 22.06.2017.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Diet, physical activity and behavioural interventions for the treatment of overweight or obese children from the age of 6 to 11 years

AU - Mead, Emma

AU - Brown, Tamara

AU - Rees, Karen

AU - Azevedo, Liane

AU - Whittaker, Victoria

AU - Jones, Daniel

AU - Olajide, Omotayo

AU - Mainardi, G. M

AU - Corpeleijn, Eva

AU - O'Malley, Claire

AU - Beardsmore, Elizabeth

AU - Al-Khudairy, Lena

AU - Baur, Louise

AU - Metzendorf, Maria-Inti

AU - Demaio, Alessandro

AU - Ells, Louisa

PY - 2017/6/22

Y1 - 2017/6/22

N2 - Background: Child and adolescent overweight and obesity has increased globally, and can be associated with significant short- and longterm health consequences. This is an update of a Cochrane Review published first in 2003, and updated previously in 2009. However, the update has now been split into six reviews addressing different childhood obesity treatments at different ages. Objectives: To assess the effects of diet, physical activity and behavioural interventions (behaviour-changing interventions) for the treatment of overweight or obese children aged 6 to 11 years. Search methods: We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, CINAHL, LILACS as well as trial registers ClinicalTrials.gov and RsdI1401 Diet, physical activity and behavioural interventions for the treatment of overweight or obese children from the ICTRP Search Portal. We checked references of studies and systematic reviews. We did not apply any language restrictions. The date of the last search was July 2016 for all databases. Selection criteria: We selected randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of diet, physical activity, and behavioural interventions (behaviour-changing interventions) for treating overweight or obese children aged 6 to 11 years, with a minimum of six months' follow-up. We excluded interventions that specifically dealt with the treatment of eating disorders or type 2 diabetes, or included participants with a secondary or syndromic cause of obesity. Data collection and analysis: Two review authors independently screened references, extracted data, assessed risk of bias, and evaluated the quality of the evidence using the GRADE instrument. We contacted study authors for additional information. We carried out metaanalyses according to the statistical guidelines in the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. Main results: We included 70 RCTs with a total of 8461 participants randomised to either the intervention or control groups. The number of participants per trial ranged from 16 to 686. Fifty-five trials compared a behaviour-changing intervention with no treatment/usual care control and 15 evaluated the effectiveness of adding an additional component to a behaviour-changing intervention. Sixty-four trials were parallel RCTs, and four were cluster RCTs. Sixty-four trials were multicomponent, two were diet only and four were physical activity only interventions. Ten trials had more than two arms. The overall quality of the evidence was low or very low and 62 trials had a high risk of bias for at least one criterion. Total duration of trials ranged from six months to three years. The median age of participants was 10 years old and the median BMI z score was 2.2. Primary analyses demonstrated that behaviour-changing interventions compared to no treatment/usual care control at longest follow-up reduced BMI, BMI z score and weight. Mean difference (MD) in BMI was -0.53 kg/m2 (95% confidence interval (CI) -0.82 to -0.24); P < 0.00001; 24 trials; 2785 participants; low-quality evidence. MD in BMI z score was -0.06 units (95% CI -0.10 to -0.02); P = 0.001; 37 trials; 4019 participants; low-quality evidence and MD in weight was -1.45 kg (95% CI -1.88 to -1.02); P < 0.00001; 17 trials; 1774 participants; low-quality evidence. Thirty-one trials reported on serious adverse events, with 29 trials reporting zero occurrences RR 0.57 (95% CI 0.17 to 1.93); P = 0.37; 4/2105 participants in the behaviour-changing intervention groups compared with 7/1991 participants in the comparator groups). Few trials reported health-related quality of life or behaviour change outcomes, and none of the analyses demonstrated a substantial difference in these outcomes between intervention and control. In two trials reporting on minutes per day of TV viewing, a small reduction of 6.6 minutes per day (95% CI -12.88 to -0.31), P = 0.04; 2 trials; 55 participants) was found in favour of the intervention. No trials reported on all-cause mortality, morbidity or socioeconomic effects, and few trials reported on participant views; none of which could be meta-analysed.

AB - Background: Child and adolescent overweight and obesity has increased globally, and can be associated with significant short- and longterm health consequences. This is an update of a Cochrane Review published first in 2003, and updated previously in 2009. However, the update has now been split into six reviews addressing different childhood obesity treatments at different ages. Objectives: To assess the effects of diet, physical activity and behavioural interventions (behaviour-changing interventions) for the treatment of overweight or obese children aged 6 to 11 years. Search methods: We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, CINAHL, LILACS as well as trial registers ClinicalTrials.gov and RsdI1401 Diet, physical activity and behavioural interventions for the treatment of overweight or obese children from the ICTRP Search Portal. We checked references of studies and systematic reviews. We did not apply any language restrictions. The date of the last search was July 2016 for all databases. Selection criteria: We selected randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of diet, physical activity, and behavioural interventions (behaviour-changing interventions) for treating overweight or obese children aged 6 to 11 years, with a minimum of six months' follow-up. We excluded interventions that specifically dealt with the treatment of eating disorders or type 2 diabetes, or included participants with a secondary or syndromic cause of obesity. Data collection and analysis: Two review authors independently screened references, extracted data, assessed risk of bias, and evaluated the quality of the evidence using the GRADE instrument. We contacted study authors for additional information. We carried out metaanalyses according to the statistical guidelines in the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. Main results: We included 70 RCTs with a total of 8461 participants randomised to either the intervention or control groups. The number of participants per trial ranged from 16 to 686. Fifty-five trials compared a behaviour-changing intervention with no treatment/usual care control and 15 evaluated the effectiveness of adding an additional component to a behaviour-changing intervention. Sixty-four trials were parallel RCTs, and four were cluster RCTs. Sixty-four trials were multicomponent, two were diet only and four were physical activity only interventions. Ten trials had more than two arms. The overall quality of the evidence was low or very low and 62 trials had a high risk of bias for at least one criterion. Total duration of trials ranged from six months to three years. The median age of participants was 10 years old and the median BMI z score was 2.2. Primary analyses demonstrated that behaviour-changing interventions compared to no treatment/usual care control at longest follow-up reduced BMI, BMI z score and weight. Mean difference (MD) in BMI was -0.53 kg/m2 (95% confidence interval (CI) -0.82 to -0.24); P < 0.00001; 24 trials; 2785 participants; low-quality evidence. MD in BMI z score was -0.06 units (95% CI -0.10 to -0.02); P = 0.001; 37 trials; 4019 participants; low-quality evidence and MD in weight was -1.45 kg (95% CI -1.88 to -1.02); P < 0.00001; 17 trials; 1774 participants; low-quality evidence. Thirty-one trials reported on serious adverse events, with 29 trials reporting zero occurrences RR 0.57 (95% CI 0.17 to 1.93); P = 0.37; 4/2105 participants in the behaviour-changing intervention groups compared with 7/1991 participants in the comparator groups). Few trials reported health-related quality of life or behaviour change outcomes, and none of the analyses demonstrated a substantial difference in these outcomes between intervention and control. In two trials reporting on minutes per day of TV viewing, a small reduction of 6.6 minutes per day (95% CI -12.88 to -0.31), P = 0.04; 2 trials; 55 participants) was found in favour of the intervention. No trials reported on all-cause mortality, morbidity or socioeconomic effects, and few trials reported on participant views; none of which could be meta-analysed.

U2 - 10.1002/14651858.CD012651

DO - 10.1002/14651858.CD012651

M3 - Article

JO - The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

JF - The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

SN - 1361-6137

ER -