reciprocally inhibited by folate and by competing diamidines. Expression of T. congolense folate transporters in diminazene-resistant Trypanosoma brucei brucei significantly sensitized the cells to diminazene and DB829, but not to oxaborole AN7973.
However, [3H]-diminazene transport studies, whole-genome sequencing, and RNAseq found no major changes in diminazene uptake, folate transporter sequence, or expression. Instead, all resistant clones displayed a moderate reduction in the mitochondrial membrane potential Ψm. We conclude that diminazene uptake in T. congolense proceed via multiple low affinity mechanisms including folate transporters; while resistance is associated with a reduction in Ψm it is unclear whether this is the primary cause of the resistance.