We compared the parameters related to glucose homeostasis, and liver and muscle proteomes in fluorosis-susceptible (A/J; S) and fluorosis-resistant (129P3/J; R) mice in response to fluoride (F) exposure and exercise. Ninety male mice (45 R-mice and 45 S-mice) were randomized into three groups: (SI; RI) No-F, No-Exercise, (SII; RII) 50 ppm F, No-Exercise, (SIII; RIII) 50 ppm F, Exercise. Overall, mean F concentrations in the plasma and femur were significantly higher in R-mice compared with S-mice. In R-mice, exercise resulted in an increase in F accumulation in the femur. In S-mice, the mean plasma glucose level was significantly higher in Group II compared with Groups I and III. There was an increase in liver proteins involved in energy flux and antioxidant enzymes in non-exercise groups (I, II) of S-mice in comparison with the corresponding groups of R-mice. The results also showed a decrease in muscle protein expression in Group I S-mice compared with their R-mice counterparts. In conclusion, the findings suggest an increased state of oxidative stress in fluorosis-susceptible mice that might be exacerbated by the treatment with F. In addition, fluorosis-susceptible mice have plasma glucose levels higher than fluorosis-resistant mice on exposure to F, and this is not affected by exercise.