Effect of sand particles on flow structure of free jet from a nozzle

Mustafa J. Al-Dulaimi, Faik Hamad, A. A. Abdul Rasool, K.A. Ameen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The Characteristics of single and two- phase flow from a circular turbulent free jet from a nozzle of 10 mm diameter were investigated experimentally and numerically. The measurements were conducted for ReJ = 10007 - 31561. The velocity was measured at location from the nozzle y/D (0-8) in axial and radial directions. The two phase measurement were done by using natural construction sand as a solid phase of sizes (220,350,550) µm and loading ratios (mass flow ratio of sand to mass flow rate of air) in the range (0.18-1.38). Two phase air velocity of jet showed that the introducing of natural sand particles gives lower jet velocity attributed to momentum transfer to particles. The smaller particle size leads to lower values of velocity. The velocity found to be decreased with loading ratio increase. The numerical simulation was performed for single and two phase jet flow. RNG K-ε turbulence model was used to simulate the flow of fluid and the discrete phase model to simulate the particles flow. The results form numerical simulation showed a good agreement with experimental results.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)5542-5561
Number of pages20
JournalJournal of Mechanical Engineering and Sciences
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 27 Sept 2019


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