Effective Solder for Improved Thermo-Mechanical Reliability of Solder Joints in a Ball Grid Array (BGA) Soldered on Printed Circuit Board (PCB)


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Ball grid array (BGA) packages have increasing applications in mobile phones, disk drives, LC displays and automotive engine controllers. However, the thermo-mechanical reliability of the BGA solder joints challenges the device functionality amidst component and system miniaturisation as well as wider adoption of lead-free solders. This investigation determines the effective BGA solders for improved thermo-mechanical reliability of the devices. It utilised a conducted study on creep response of a lead-based eutectic Sn63Pb37 and four lead-free Tin-Silver-Copper (SnAgCu) [SAC305, SAC387, SAC396 and SAC405] solders subjected to thermal cycling loadings and isothermal ageing. The solders form the joints between the BGAs and printed circuit boards (PCBs). ANSYS R19.0 package is used to simulate isothermal ageing of some of the assemblies at -40℃, 25℃, 75℃ and 150℃ temperatures for 45 days and model the thermal cycling history of the other assemblies from 22℃ ambient temperature for six cycles. The response of the solders is simulated using Garofalo-Arrhenius creep model. Under thermal ageing, SAC396 solder joints demonstrate possession of least strain energy density, deformation and von-Mises stress in comparison to the other solders. Under thermal cycle loading conditions, SAC405 acquired the lowest amount of the damage parameters in comparison. Lead-free SAC405 and SAC387 joints accumulated the lowest and highest energy dissipation per cycle, respectively. It is concluded that SAC405 and SAC396 are the most effective solders for BGA in devices experiencing isothermal ageing and temperature cycling during operation, respectively. They are proposed as the suitable replacement of eutectic Sn63Pb37 solder for the various conditions.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)263-282
Number of pages20
JournalJournal of Electronic Materials
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 5 Nov 2020

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The work reported in part in this article is funded by the School of Mechanical Engineering & the Built Environment, College of Engineering & Technology, University of Derby, UK.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2020, The Author(s).


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