Effects of charring temperature on physicochemical properties of wheat straw biochar

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Environmental management through the effective utilisation of biowaste has attracted significant attention in recent years. The production of biochar and its use in agriculture can play a vital role in climate change mitigation and support improving the management and quality of forestry and agricultural waste. Biochar is the carbonaceous, porous material that can be obtained from the conversion of bio-based waste commonly via the pyrolysis process at elevated temperatures. Variation in pyrolytic temperature affects the yield and nutrient composition of biochar. The selection of optimum pyrolytic temperature is crucial before using it for agricultural and environmental purposes.
This study examines the effect of pyrolysis temperature on the physical and chemical characteristics of biochar (BC) derived from wheat straw. The feedstock sample was heated at 100 °C/min to different temperatures of 300, 400, 500, 600, 700 and 800 °C and held at that temperature for 15 min (residence time). The samples are then cooled back down to room temperature.
The produced biochar samples at different temperatures were characterised for their pore structures, chemical functionalities and mineral compositions to understand their physiochemical behaviour. We show that pyrolysis temperature plays a significant role in the formation of biochar microstructure. These biochar samples were utilised without any additional purifications/ treatments for their practical application as support materials for soil improvement and water treatment.
The results show that by increasing temperature, the biochar yield declines rapidly with the final yield of biochar of about 25% at 800 °C. This can be attributed to a greater biomass decomposition at elevated temperatures. Furthermore, our analysis shows that at the higher pyrolysis temperatures the functional groups alter more significantly indicated by the relative change in the degree of polarity [ (O+N)/C and O/C] and aromaticity (H/C) ratios. The existence of some inorganic components such as crystalline SiO2 and CaCO3 have been also detected. A higher amount of alkaline metals is found in biochar that is produced at above 500 °C temperature (Mg, K and Ca). The SEM images demonstrated that as the temperature increased, the biochar particles became smaller and lost more of their original cell structures. However, BET Analysis showed that the surface area and micropore volume of biochar can be increased with charring temperature. The altered structure of biochar at elevated temperatures offers a large surface area, which is crucial in enhancing the soil arability, texture, and retention of nutrients and while also promoting the growth of beneficial microorganisms.
Original languageEnglish
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 2022
Event14th Annual Meeting of the International Society of Porous Media -
Duration: 30 May 20222 Jun 2022
Conference number: 14


Conference14th Annual Meeting of the International Society of Porous Media
Abbreviated titleInterpore 2022
Internet address


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