We report on the π–π interactions between graphene quantum dots (GQDs) and the following cobalt phthalocyanine derivatives: cobalt monocarboxyphenoxy phthalocyanine (complex 1), cobalt tetracarboxyphenoxyphthalocyanine (complex 2), and cobalt tetraaminophenoxy phthalocyanine (complex 3). The conjugates (conj) with GQDs are represented as 1@GQDs(conj), 2@GQDs(conj) and 3@GQDs(conj), respectively. The resulting phthalocyanine/GQDs conjugates were adsorbed on containing a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) using the drop and dry method. We explore the electrochemical properties of phthalocyanines functionalized with both electron withdrawing groups and electron donating groups when non-covalently linked to the π-electron rich graphene quantum dots. GCE/3, GCE/2@GQDs(conj) and GCE/1@GQDs(conj) had the lowest limits of detection (LOD). Sequentially modified electrodes showed less favourable detection limits compared to the conjugates.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported by the National Research Foundation (NRF) of South Africa through DST/NRF South African Research Chairs Initiative for Professor of Medicinal Chemistry and Nanotechnology (UID 62620), and Rhodes University. SSC would like to thank NRF for Masters funding.
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