Effects of time of day and distance upon accuracy and consistency of throwing darts

Benjamin Edwards, James Waterhouse, Greg Atkinson, Thomas Reilly

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    14 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    We examined variations in dart-throwing performance during the daytime in 12 participants. Two distances from the dartboard were investigated - the normal distance (short throws) and another 50% further away than this (long throws). Intra-aural temperature and subjective fatigue were measured, and errors in performance were assessed as the radial distances of throws from the bulls-eye and the standard deviation of these distances. Long-distance throws improved significantly throughout the daytime and correlated positively with intra-aural temperature (r = -0.49, P = 0.002 and r = -0.49, P = 0.002 for errors and standard deviation of errors, respectively), but not with subjective fatigue (r = -0.10, P = 0.56 and r = -0.05, P = 0.74 for errors and standard deviation of errors, respectively). Short-distance throws were associated less with intra-aural temperature (r = -0.46, P = 0.005 and r = -0.17, P = 0.31 for errors and standard deviation of errors, respectively), and worsened with fatigue (r = +0.34, P = 0.040 for errors). Compared with the short-distance throws, the long-distance throws were performed significantly less well than could be accounted for by the increased distance (mean errors were increased 1.67 - 2.78 times and standard deviation of errors of errors 1.58 - 3.68 times), supporting the concept of a trade-off between force of contraction and accuracy of performance. Throwing darts can be used as a model for investigating factors that influence motor performance, and our results indicate that the effects of time of day upon performance depend upon the relative importance of force and accuracy.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)1531-1538
    Number of pages8
    JournalJournal of Sports Sciences
    Volume25
    Issue number13
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 1 Oct 2007

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