Background: Human tissue kallikrein 15 (KLK15) is the latest member of the kallikrein-related peptidase family. Little is known about the pathophysiological roles of KLK15. Previous studies implied a role of KLK15 in prostate cancer. Methods: In the present study, we examined KLK15 protein expression using a new immunoassay (ELISA) and immunohistochemistry (IHC). Results: Highest KLK15 levels were detected in the testis and seminal fluid, whereas lower levels were observed in prostate and other tissues. Immunohistochemical analysis of testis suggests that KLK15 is strongly expressed in mature spermatids, but not in immature germ cells. KLK15 displayed predominantly nuclear localization in the basal cell layer of the prostatic epithelium. We also measured KLK15 in supernatants of various cell lines. Highest KLK15 levels were primarily detected in prostate cancer cell lines and KLK15 expression was hormone-independent, in contrast to KLK3. Conclusions: Collectively, our data provide insights into the localization and possible role of KLK15 in human physiology.