The controllable synthesis of nanostructured CeO2 based material is an imperative issue for environmental- and energy- related applications. In this study, for the first time, Fe/CeO2 decorated carbon nanofibers (CNFs) have been successfully fabricated and studied. The introduced composite was developed via a facile approach based on electrospinning and pyrolysis. Electrochemical characterization for the introduced nanomaterial indicated that the corresponding specific capacitance is 56 Fg-1 with good stability. XRD, HR-TEM, FE-SEM, FTIR and EDX analyses are conducted to characterize the physical properties of the modified CNFs. Overall, the presented study unlocks new opportunity for low-priced and operative transition and rare earth family based new material as non-precious catalyst for supercapacitors applications.