The critical goal of sensitive virus detection should apply in the early stage of infection, which may increase the probable survival rate. To achieve the low detection limit for the early stage where a small number of viruses are present in the sample, proper amplified signals from a sensor can make readable and reliable detection. In this work, a new model of fluorescent and electrochemical dual-mode detection system has been developed to detect virus, taking recombinant Chikungunya virus E1 protein (CHIK-VP) as an example. The hydrophobic quantum dots (QDs) embedded in the lipid bilayer of liposome and methylene blue (MB) encapsulated in the inner core of liposomes played a role of dual-signaling modulator. After CHIK-VP addition, the nanocomposites and APTES-coated Fe3O4 nanoparticles (Fe3O4 NPs) were conjugated with antibodies to form a sandwich structure and separated from the medium magnetically. The nanoconjugates have been burst out by chloroform as surfactant, and both the QDs and MB are released from the liposome and were then monitored through changes in the fluorescence and electrochemical signals, respectively. These two fluorometric and electrochemical signals alteration quantified the CHIK-VP in the range of femtogram to nanogram per milliliter level with a LOD of 32 fg mL−1, making this liposomal system a potential matrix in a virus detection platform. [Figure not available: see fulltext.].
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
ABG (No. 19F19064) and OJA (No. 19F19348) received support from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) (postdoctoral fellowship) and the Heiwa Nakajima Foundation.
The authors thank Professor K. Morita of Institute of Tropical Medicine Nagasaki University, Dr. C. Kawakami of the Yokohama City Institute of Health (Yokohama Japan), Dr. Jun Satoh of National Research Institute of Aquaculture of Japan Fisheries Research and Education Agency, and Dr. Tian-Cheng Li of Department of Virology, National Institute of Infectious Diseases for providing Zika virus, influenza virus A (H3N2), WSSV, and HEV-LP, respectively, for the selectivity test.
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