From Reform to Revolt: Bashar al-Assad and the Arab Tribes in Syria

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


The death of Hafez al-Assad and the succession of his son, Bashar, brought an end to the system of government that Hafez had built up over decades. Hafez al-Assad built an authoritarian state based on patronage networks that connected his regime to the society. These networks allowed the state to become the major source of employment for the tribes and to clientise their Sheikhs through distributive social policies, thus securing the regime’s survival. In contrast to his father’s rule, under Bashar these patronage relationships have been affected by the policies of privatisation and liberalisation.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationPastoralist Livelihoods in Asian Drylands
Subtitle of host publicationEnvironment, Governance and Risk,
EditorsAriell Ahearn, Troy Sternberg, Allison Hahn
PublisherWhite Horse Press
ISBN (Print)9781-874267-98
Publication statusPublished - 1 Feb 2016


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