Gradients in compositions in the starchy endosperm of wheat have implications for milling and processing

Paola Tosi, Jibin He, Alison Lovegrove, Irene Gonzáles-Thuillier, Simon Penson, Peter R. Shewry

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

Background
Wheat is the major food grain consumed in temperate countries. Most wheat is consumed after milling to produce white flour, which corresponds to the endosperm storage tissue of the grain. Because the starchy endosperm accounts for about 80% of the grain dry weight, the miller aims to achieve flour yields approaching this value.

Scope and Approach
Bioimaging can be combined with biochemical analysis of fractions produced by sequential pearling of whole grains to determine the distributions of components within the endosperm tissue.

Key Findings and Conclusions
This reveals that endosperm is not homogeneous, but exhibits gradients in composition from the outer to the inner part. These include gradients in both amount and composition. For example, the content of gluten proteins decreases but the proportion of glutenin polymers increases from the outside to the centre of the tissue. However, the content of starch increases with changes in the granule size distribution, the proportions of amylose and amylopectin, and their thermal properties. Hence these parts of the endosperm differ in the functional properties for food processing. Gradients also exist in minor components which may affect health and processing, such as dietary fibre and lipids. The gradients in grain composition are reflected in differences in the compositions of the mill streams which are combined to give white flour (which may number over 20). These differences could therefore be exploited by millers and food processors to develop flours with compositions and properties for specific end uses.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-7
Number of pages7
JournalTrends in Food Science and Technology
Volume82
Early online date28 Sep 2018
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2018

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Endosperm
Triticum
endosperm
Flour
flour
wheat
food grains
Amylopectin
Food
Amylose
Functional Food
Food Handling
Glutens
whole grain foods
glutenins
amylopectin
Dietary Fiber
thermal properties
gluten
food processing

Cite this

Tosi, Paola ; He, Jibin ; Lovegrove, Alison ; Gonzáles-Thuillier, Irene ; Penson, Simon ; Shewry, Peter R. / Gradients in compositions in the starchy endosperm of wheat have implications for milling and processing. In: Trends in Food Science and Technology. 2018 ; Vol. 82. pp. 1-7.
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Gradients in compositions in the starchy endosperm of wheat have implications for milling and processing. / Tosi, Paola; He, Jibin; Lovegrove, Alison; Gonzáles-Thuillier, Irene; Penson, Simon; Shewry, Peter R.

In: Trends in Food Science and Technology, Vol. 82, 01.12.2018, p. 1-7.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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AU - Tosi, Paola

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AU - Shewry, Peter R.

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AB - BackgroundWheat is the major food grain consumed in temperate countries. Most wheat is consumed after milling to produce white flour, which corresponds to the endosperm storage tissue of the grain. Because the starchy endosperm accounts for about 80% of the grain dry weight, the miller aims to achieve flour yields approaching this value. Scope and Approach Bioimaging can be combined with biochemical analysis of fractions produced by sequential pearling of whole grains to determine the distributions of components within the endosperm tissue.Key Findings and ConclusionsThis reveals that endosperm is not homogeneous, but exhibits gradients in composition from the outer to the inner part. These include gradients in both amount and composition. For example, the content of gluten proteins decreases but the proportion of glutenin polymers increases from the outside to the centre of the tissue. However, the content of starch increases with changes in the granule size distribution, the proportions of amylose and amylopectin, and their thermal properties. Hence these parts of the endosperm differ in the functional properties for food processing. Gradients also exist in minor components which may affect health and processing, such as dietary fibre and lipids. The gradients in grain composition are reflected in differences in the compositions of the mill streams which are combined to give white flour (which may number over 20). These differences could therefore be exploited by millers and food processors to develop flours with compositions and properties for specific end uses.

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