Implementation of Smart Contracts Using Hybrid Architectures with On and Off-Blockchain Components.

Carlos Molina-Jiménez, Ioannis Sfyrakis, Ellis Solaiman, Irene C. L. Ng, Meng Weng Wong, Alexis Chun, Jon Crowcroft

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution


Decentralised (on-blockchain) and centralised (off–blockchain) platforms are available for the implementation of smart contracts. However, none of the two alternatives can individually provide the services and quality of services (QoS) imposed on smart contracts involved in a large class of applications. The reason is that blockchain platforms suffer from scalability, performance, transaction costs and other limitations. Likewise, off–blockchain platforms are afflicted by drawbacks emerging from their dependence on single trusted third parties. We argue that in several applications, hybrid platforms composed from the integration of on and off–blockchain platforms are more adequate. Developers that informatively choose between the three alternatives are likely to implement smart contracts that deliver the expected QoS. Hybrid architectures are largely unexplored. To help cover the gap and as a proof of concept, in this paper we discuss the implementation of smart contracts on hybrid architectures. We show how a smart contract can be split and executed partially on an off–blockchain contract compliance checker and partially on the rinkeby ethereum network. To test the solution, we expose it to sequences of contractual operations generated mechanically by a contract validator tool.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationProceedings 2018 IEEE 8th International Symposium on Cloud and Service Computing (SC2)
ISBN (Electronic)9781728102368
ISBN (Print)9781728102375
Publication statusPublished - 9 Dec 2018
Event8th International Symposium on Cloud and Service Computing - Paris, France
Duration: 18 Nov 201821 Nov 2018


Conference8th International Symposium on Cloud and Service Computing

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