Interventions for treating proximal humeral fractures in adults

Helen Handoll, Stig Brorson

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    Background Fracture of the proximal humerus, often termed shoulder fracture, is a common injury in older people. The management of these fractures varies widely. This is an update of a Cochrane Review first published in 2001 and last updated in 2012. Objectives To assess the effects (benefits and harms) of treatment and rehabilitation interventions for proximal humeral fractures in adults. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Bone, Joint and Muscle Trauma Group Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, and other databases, conference proceedings and bibliographies of trial reports. The full search ended in November 2014. Selection criteria We considered all randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-randomised controlled trials pertinent to the management of proximal humeral fractures in adults. Data collection and analysis Both review authors performed independent study selection, risk of bias assessment and data extraction. Only limited meta-analysis was performed. Main results We included 31 heterogeneous RCTs (1941 participants). Most of the 18 separate treatment comparisons were tested by small single-centre trials. The main exception was the surgical versus non-surgical treatment comparison tested by eight trials. Except for a large multicentre trial, bias in these trials could not be ruled out. The quality of the evidence was either low or very low for all comparisons except the largest comparison. Nine trials evaluated non-surgical treatment in mainly minimally displaced fractures. Four trials compared early (usually one week) versus delayed (three or four weeks) mobilisation after fracture but only limited pooling was possible and most of the data were from one trial (86 participants). This found some evidence that early mobilisation resulted in better recovery and less pain in people with mainly minimally displaced fractures. There was evidence of little difference between the two groups in shoulder complications (2/127 early mobilisation versus 3/132 delayed mobilisation; 4 trials) and fracture displacement and non-union (2/52 versus 1/54; 2 trials). One quasi-randomised trial (28 participants) found the Gilchrist-type sling was generally more comfortable than the Desault-type sling (body bandage). One trial (48 participants) testing pulsed electromagnetic high-frequency energy provided no evidence. Two trials (62 participants) provided evidence indicating little difference in outcome between instruction for home exercises versus supervised physiotherapy. One trial (48 participants) reported, without presentable data, that home exercise alone gave better early and comparable long-term results than supervised exercise in a swimming pool plus home exercise. Eight trials, involving 567 older participants, evaluated surgical intervention for displaced fractures. There was high quality evidence of no clinically important difference in patient-reported shoulder and upper-limb function at one- or two-year follow-up between surgical (primarily locking plate fixation or hemiarthroplasty) and non-surgical treatment (sling immobilisation) for the majority of displaced proximal humeral fractures; and moderate quality evidence of no clinically important difference between the two groups in quality of life at two years (and at interim follow-ups at six and 12 months). There was moderate quality evidence of little difference between groups in mortality in the surgery group (17/248 versus 12/248; risk ratio (RR) 1.40 favouring non-surgical treatment, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.69 to 2.83; P = 0.35; 6 trials); only one death was explicitly linked with the treatment. There was moderate quality evidence of a higher risk of additional surgery in the surgery group (34/262 versus 16/261; RR 2.06, 95% CI 1.18 to 3.60; P = 0.01; 7 trials). Although there was moderate evidence of a higher risk of adverse events after surgery, the 95% confide
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)0
    JournalCochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
    Issue number11
    Publication statusPublished - 11 Nov 2015


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