Kinetic Behavior of Quaternary Ammonium Hydroxides in Mixed Methane and Carbon Dioxide Hydrates

Muhammad Saad Khan , Cornelius Borecho Bavoh, Khor Siak Foo, Azmi Mohd Shariff, Zamzila Kassim, Nurzatil Aqmar Bt Othman, Bhajan Lal, Iqbal Ahmed, Mohammad Azizur Rahman, Sina Rezaei Gomari

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Abstract

This study evaluates the kinetic hydrate inhibition (KHI) performance of four quaternary ammonium hydroxides (QAH) on mixed CH4 + CO2 hydrate systems. The studied QAHs are; tetraethylammonium hydroxide (TEAOH), tetrabutylammonium hydroxide (TBAOH), tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAOH), and tetrapropylammonium hydroxide (TPrAOH). The test was performed in a high-pressure hydrate reactor at temperatures of 274.0 K and 277.0 K, and a concentration of 1 wt.% using the isochoric cooling method. The kinetics results suggest that all the QAHs potentially delayed mixed CH4 + CO2 hydrates formation due to their steric hindrance abilities. The presence of QAHs reduced hydrate formation risk than the conventional hydrate inhibitor, PVP, at higher subcooling conditions. The findings indicate that increasing QAHs alkyl chain lengths increase their kinetic hydrate inhibition efficacies due to better surface adsorption abilities. QAHs with longer chain lengths have lesser amounts of solute particles to prevent hydrate formation. The outcomes of this study contribute significantly to current efforts to control gas hydrate formation in offshore petroleum pipelines
Original languageEnglish
Article numbermolecules26020275
Number of pages15
JournalMolecules
Volume26
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 7 Jan 2021

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