Molecular Epidemiology and Characterization of Multidrug-Resistant MRSA ST398 and ST239 in Himachal Pradesh, India

Sandip Patil, Shaowei Dong, Devender Sharma, Bruno Silvester Lopes, Alfizah Hanafiah, Xiaowen Chen, Feiqiu Wen

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Aim: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a common cause of severe and difficult-to-treat infections in humans and animals. We aimed to identify the predominant lineages of methicillin-resistant S. aureus in Himachal Pradesh, India, to understand the genomic epidemiology along with the genotypic and phenotypic characteristics. Methods: We isolated 250 S. aureus from two district hospitals in Himachal Pradesh, India. Methicillin-Resistant S. aureus (MRSA) isolates were subjected to MLST, SCCmec typing, and resistance as well as virulence determinants were determined by PCR and sequencing. Bio-typing was also performed for source tracking. Results: A 17.6% (44/250) of isolates were classified as MRSA by both the MRSA detection kit and disc diffusion methods. Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing of MRSA isolates (n = 44) showed high resistance to oxacillin (77.27%), erythromycin (77.27%), tetracycline (75%), cefoxitin (65.9%), and gentamicin (61.36%), while low resistance was observed for teicoplanin (36.36%), vancomycin and levofloxacin (31.81%) and fusidic acid (18.18%). All isolates were sensitive to linezolid, quinupristin-dulfopristin, dalbavancin, and cefazoline. The SCCmec-II was observed in 20.45% of isolates, SCCmec-I in 11.36%, SCCmec-III in 9%, SCCmec-IV in 40.9% and SCCmec-V in 18.18%. The mecA gene was present in all isolates (n = 44) and 50% also had the vanA gene. 35% of isolates had the lukS-PV/lukf-PV toxin gene and 11.36% had the co-existence of mecA, vanA, and lukS-PV/lukf-PV. The major strain was ST398 (39%) followed by ST239 (27%), ST217 (16%), ST121 (11%), and ST338 (7%). The MRSA isolates produced staphylokinase and β-hemolysis but were negative for bovine plasma coagulation tests. In Conclusion: The predominant MRSA clones in Himachal Pradesh, India, were hospital-associated multi-drug resistant-MRSA ST239 with PVL and community-associated MRSA ST398.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2339-2348
Number of pages10
JournalInfection and Drug Resistance
Publication statusPublished - 1 Apr 2023

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work was supported by Shenzhen Fund for Guangdong Provincial High-Level Clinical Key Specialties (No. SZGSP012); Shenzhen Key Medical Discipline Construction Fund (No. SZXK034).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 Patil et al.


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