On and Off-Blockchain Enforcement of Smart Contracts

Carlos Molina-Jiménez, Ellis Solaiman, Ioannis Sfyrakis, Irene C. L. Ng, Jon Crowcroft

Research output: Contribution to conferencePaperpeer-review


Emerging blockchain technology is a promising platform for implementing smart contracts. But there is a large class of applications, where blockchain is inadequate due to performance, scalability, and consistency requirements, and also due to language expressiveness and cost issues that are hard to solve. In this paper we explain that in some situations a centralised approach that does not rely on blockchain is a better alternative due to its simplicity, scalability, and performance. We suggest that in applications where decentralisation and transparency are essential, developers can advantageously combine the two approaches into hybrid solutions where some operations are enforced by enforcers deployed on–blockchains and the rest by enforcers deployed on trusted third parties.

Original languageEnglish
Number of pages13
Publication statusPublished - 31 Dec 2018
Externally publishedYes

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