Pathogens and other symbionts of the Amphipoda: taxonomic diversity and pathological significance

Jamie Bojko, Mykola Ovcharenko

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


ABSTRACT: With over 10 000 species of Amphipoda currently described, this order is one of the
most diverse groups of freshwater and marine Crustacea. Members of this group are globally distri -
buted, and many are keystone species and ecosystem engineers within their respective ecologies.
As with most organisms, disease is a key factor that can alter population size, behaviour, survival,
invasion potential and physiology of amphipod hosts. This review explores symbiont diversity and
pathology in amphipods by coalescing a range of current and historical literature to provide the
first full review of our understanding of amphipod disease. The review is broken into 2 parts. The
first half explores amphipod microparasites, which include data pertaining to viruses, bacteria, fungi,
oomycetes, microsporidians, dinoflagellates, myxozoans, ascetosporeans, mesomycetozoeans, api -
complexans and ciliophorans. The second half reports the metazoan macroparasites of Amphipoda,
including rotifers, trematodes, acanthocephalans, nematodes, cestodes and parasitic Crustacea. In
all cases we have endeavoured to provide a complete list of known species that cause disease in
amphipods, while also exploring the effects of parasitism. Although our under standing of disease
in amphipods requires greater research efforts to better define taxonomic diversity and host ef -
fects of amphipod symbionts, research to date has made huge progress in cataloguing and experimentally
determining the effects of disease upon amphipods. For the future, we suggest a greater
focus on developing model systems that use readily available amphi pods and diseases, which can
be comparable to the diseases in other Crustacea that are endangered, economically important or
difficult to house.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3-36
JournalDiseases of Aquatic Organisms
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2 Oct 2019


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