Wireless Sensor Networks with Mobile Sinks (WSN-MSs) are considered a viable alternative to the heavy cost of deployment of traditional wireless sensing infrastructures at scale. However, current state-of-the-art approaches perform poorly in practice due to their requirement of mobility prediction and specific assumptions on network topology. In this paper, we focus on lowdelay and high-throughput opportunistic data collection in WSN-MSs with general network topologies and arbitrary numbers of mobile sinks. We first propose a novel routing metric, Contact-Aware ETX (CA-ETX), to estimate the packet transmission delay caused by both packet retransmissions and intermittent connectivity. By implementing CA-ETX in the defacto TinyOS routing standard CTP and the IETF IPv6 routing protocol RPL, we demonstrate that CA-ETX can work seamlessly with ETX. This means that current ETXbased routing protocols for static WSNs can be easily extended to WSN-MSs with minimal modification by using CA-ETX. Further, by combing CA-ETX with the dynamic backpressure routing, we present a throughput-optimal scheme Opportunistic Backpressure Collection (OBC). Both CA-ETX and OBC are lightweight, easy to implement, and require no mobility prediction. Through test-bed experiments and extensive simulations, we show that the proposed schemes significantly outperform current approaches in terms of packet transmission delay, communication overhead, storage overheads, reliability, and scalability.
Yang, S., Adeel, U., Tahir, Y., & McCann, J. (2017). Practical opportunistic data collection in wireless sensor networks with mobile sinks. IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, 16(5), 1420-1433. https://doi.org/10.1109/TMC.2016.2595574, https://doi.org/10.1109/TMC.2016.2595574