There is concern over the sustainability and environmental impact of mineral fertilisers and crop protection inputs used in intensive arable crop production systems. However, replacing mineral with organic fertilisers (animal and green manures) and restricting the use of chemosynthetic crop protection may significantly reduce crop yields. The effects of (a) replacing mineral with composted cattle manure fertiliser input and (b) omitting pesticide-based crop protection on potato (Solanum tuberosum) tuber yield, leaf and tuber mineral nutrient content and leaf protein profiles were investigated. Switching to organic fertiliser had a greater effect on yield and protein profiles than the omission of chemosynthetic crop protection. Leaf N and P composition were significant drivers of protein expression, particularly proteins involved in photosynthesis such as the large subunit of RuBisCO, RuBisCO activase and the photosystem I reaction centre, which were at higher abundances in potato leaves grown under mineral fertiliser regimes. Proteins known to be induced in response to stress, such as dehydroascorbate reductase and Glutathione S-transferases, were also shown to be up-regulated under mineral fertilisation, possibly associated with higher Cd composition, whereas two proteins known to be involved in biotic stress (1,3-β-d-glucan glucanohydrolase; putative Kunitz-type tuber invertase inhibitor) were more abundant under compost fertilisation. Results showed that switching from mineral to organic fertilisers led to reduced N availability, a significant change in leaf protein expression and lower tuber yield. In contrast, omission of chemosynthetic crop protection inputs had limited effects on protein expression and no significant effect on tuber yield. This study provides information on the effects of changes in nutrient supply on protein expression patterns. It is a prerequisite for the development of functional molecular markers for a directed strategy to inform breeding programmes to improve potato nutrient use efficiency.