The membrane-protein 81 gene (mb-mp81) of Mycoplasma bovis was cloned, sequenced and compared to membrane-protein 81 gene (ma-mp81) of Mycoplasma agalactiae. After alignment of both sequences, specific primers pairs were designed from variable or unchanging nucleotide segments. In this study, we describe the development and optimization of a multiplex-PCR (MPCR) for the rapid detection of M. agalactiae and M. bovis strains. In addition, a simple and rapid PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) assay, using the restriction enzymes AluI, DraI, RsaI and XbaI, is described to distinguish between both species. The results suggest that MPCR and PCR-RFLP assays could be used as an alternative method in routine diagnosis for rapid and specific simultaneous detection of M. agalactiae and M. bovis.