Catalytic hydrotreatment (HT) is one of the most important refining steps in the actual petroleum-based refineries for the production of fuels and chemicals, and it will play also a crucial role for the development of biomass-based refineries. In fact, the utilization of HT processes for the upgrading of biomass and/or lignocellulosic residues aimed to the production of synthetic fuels and chemical intermediates represents a reliable strategy to reduce both carbon dioxide emissions and fossil fuels dependence. At this regard, the catalytic hydrotreatment of oils obtained from either thermochemical (e.g., pyrolysis) or physical (e.g., vegetable seeds pressing) processes allows to convert biomass-derived oils into a biofuel with properties very similar to conventional ones (so-called drop-in biofuels). Similarly, catalytic hydro-processing also may have a key role in the valorization of other biorefinery streams, such as lignocellulose, for the production of high-added value chemicals. This review is focused on recent hydrotreatment developments aimed to stabilizing the pyrolytic oil from biomasses. A particular emphasis is devoted on the catalyst formulation, reaction pathways, and technologies.