Regional lead isotope study of a polluted river catchment: River Wear, Northern England, UK

Thomas J Shepherd, Simon R N Chenery, Vanessa Pashley, Richard A Lord, Louise E Ander, Neil Breward, Susan F Hobbs, Matthew Horstwood, Benjamin A Klinck, Fred Worrall

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

Abstract

High precision, lead isotope analyses of archived stream sediments from the River Wear catchment, northeast England (1986–88), provide evidence for three main sources of anthropogenic lead pollution; lead mining, industrial lead emissions and leaded petrol. In the upper catchment, pollution is totally controlled and dominated by large lead discharges from historic mining centres in the North Pennine Orefield (208Pb/206Pb, 207Pb/206Pb ratios range from 2.0744–2.0954 and 0.8413–0.8554 respectively). In the lower catchment, co-extensive with the Durham Coalfield and areas of high population density, pollution levels are lower and regionally more uniform. Isotope ratios are systematically higher than in the upper catchment (208Pb/206Pb, 207Pb/206Pb ratios range from 2.0856–2.1397 and 0.8554–0.8896 respectively) and far exceed values determined for the geogenic regional background. Here, the pollution is characterised by the atmospheric deposition of industrial lead and petrol lead. Lead derived from the combustion of coal, although present, is masked by the other two sources. Recent sediments from the main channel of the River Wear are isotopically indistinguishable from older, low order stream sediments of the North Pennine Orefield, indicating that contamination of the river by lead mining waste (up to several 1000 mg/kg Pb at some locations) continues to pose an environmental problem; a pattern that can be traced all the way to the tidal reach. Using within-catchment isotope variation and sediment lead concentrations, estimates can be made of the discharges from discrete mines or groups of mines to the overall level of lead pollution in the River Wear. As well as providing information pertinent to source apportionment and on-going catchment remediation measures, the database is a valuable resource for epidemiologists concerned with the health risks posed by environmental lead.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)4882-4893
JournalScience of the Total Environment
Volume407
Issue number17
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2009

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lead isotope
Isotopes
Catchments
Lead
Rivers
Wear of materials
catchment
river
Pollution
Sediments
Lead mines
pollution
fluvial deposit
isotope
Coal
Health risks
Remediation
atmospheric deposition
Contamination
health risk

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Shepherd, T. J., Chenery, S. R. N., Pashley, V., Lord, R. A., Ander, L. E., Breward, N., ... Worrall, F. (2009). Regional lead isotope study of a polluted river catchment: River Wear, Northern England, UK. Science of the Total Environment, 407(17), 4882-4893. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2009.05.041
Shepherd, Thomas J ; Chenery, Simon R N ; Pashley, Vanessa ; Lord, Richard A ; Ander, Louise E ; Breward, Neil ; Hobbs, Susan F ; Horstwood, Matthew ; Klinck, Benjamin A ; Worrall, Fred. / Regional lead isotope study of a polluted river catchment: River Wear, Northern England, UK. In: Science of the Total Environment. 2009 ; Vol. 407, No. 17. pp. 4882-4893.
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title = "Regional lead isotope study of a polluted river catchment: River Wear, Northern England, UK",
abstract = "High precision, lead isotope analyses of archived stream sediments from the River Wear catchment, northeast England (1986–88), provide evidence for three main sources of anthropogenic lead pollution; lead mining, industrial lead emissions and leaded petrol. In the upper catchment, pollution is totally controlled and dominated by large lead discharges from historic mining centres in the North Pennine Orefield (208Pb/206Pb, 207Pb/206Pb ratios range from 2.0744–2.0954 and 0.8413–0.8554 respectively). In the lower catchment, co-extensive with the Durham Coalfield and areas of high population density, pollution levels are lower and regionally more uniform. Isotope ratios are systematically higher than in the upper catchment (208Pb/206Pb, 207Pb/206Pb ratios range from 2.0856–2.1397 and 0.8554–0.8896 respectively) and far exceed values determined for the geogenic regional background. Here, the pollution is characterised by the atmospheric deposition of industrial lead and petrol lead. Lead derived from the combustion of coal, although present, is masked by the other two sources. Recent sediments from the main channel of the River Wear are isotopically indistinguishable from older, low order stream sediments of the North Pennine Orefield, indicating that contamination of the river by lead mining waste (up to several 1000 mg/kg Pb at some locations) continues to pose an environmental problem; a pattern that can be traced all the way to the tidal reach. Using within-catchment isotope variation and sediment lead concentrations, estimates can be made of the discharges from discrete mines or groups of mines to the overall level of lead pollution in the River Wear. As well as providing information pertinent to source apportionment and on-going catchment remediation measures, the database is a valuable resource for epidemiologists concerned with the health risks posed by environmental lead.",
author = "Shepherd, {Thomas J} and Chenery, {Simon R N} and Vanessa Pashley and Lord, {Richard A} and Ander, {Louise E} and Neil Breward and Hobbs, {Susan F} and Matthew Horstwood and Klinck, {Benjamin A} and Fred Worrall",
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Shepherd, TJ, Chenery, SRN, Pashley, V, Lord, RA, Ander, LE, Breward, N, Hobbs, SF, Horstwood, M, Klinck, BA & Worrall, F 2009, 'Regional lead isotope study of a polluted river catchment: River Wear, Northern England, UK', Science of the Total Environment, vol. 407, no. 17, pp. 4882-4893. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2009.05.041

Regional lead isotope study of a polluted river catchment: River Wear, Northern England, UK. / Shepherd, Thomas J; Chenery, Simon R N; Pashley, Vanessa; Lord, Richard A; Ander, Louise E; Breward, Neil; Hobbs, Susan F; Horstwood, Matthew; Klinck, Benjamin A; Worrall, Fred.

In: Science of the Total Environment, Vol. 407, No. 17, 2009, p. 4882-4893.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

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T1 - Regional lead isotope study of a polluted river catchment: River Wear, Northern England, UK

AU - Shepherd, Thomas J

AU - Chenery, Simon R N

AU - Pashley, Vanessa

AU - Lord, Richard A

AU - Ander, Louise E

AU - Breward, Neil

AU - Hobbs, Susan F

AU - Horstwood, Matthew

AU - Klinck, Benjamin A

AU - Worrall, Fred

PY - 2009

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N2 - High precision, lead isotope analyses of archived stream sediments from the River Wear catchment, northeast England (1986–88), provide evidence for three main sources of anthropogenic lead pollution; lead mining, industrial lead emissions and leaded petrol. In the upper catchment, pollution is totally controlled and dominated by large lead discharges from historic mining centres in the North Pennine Orefield (208Pb/206Pb, 207Pb/206Pb ratios range from 2.0744–2.0954 and 0.8413–0.8554 respectively). In the lower catchment, co-extensive with the Durham Coalfield and areas of high population density, pollution levels are lower and regionally more uniform. Isotope ratios are systematically higher than in the upper catchment (208Pb/206Pb, 207Pb/206Pb ratios range from 2.0856–2.1397 and 0.8554–0.8896 respectively) and far exceed values determined for the geogenic regional background. Here, the pollution is characterised by the atmospheric deposition of industrial lead and petrol lead. Lead derived from the combustion of coal, although present, is masked by the other two sources. Recent sediments from the main channel of the River Wear are isotopically indistinguishable from older, low order stream sediments of the North Pennine Orefield, indicating that contamination of the river by lead mining waste (up to several 1000 mg/kg Pb at some locations) continues to pose an environmental problem; a pattern that can be traced all the way to the tidal reach. Using within-catchment isotope variation and sediment lead concentrations, estimates can be made of the discharges from discrete mines or groups of mines to the overall level of lead pollution in the River Wear. As well as providing information pertinent to source apportionment and on-going catchment remediation measures, the database is a valuable resource for epidemiologists concerned with the health risks posed by environmental lead.

AB - High precision, lead isotope analyses of archived stream sediments from the River Wear catchment, northeast England (1986–88), provide evidence for three main sources of anthropogenic lead pollution; lead mining, industrial lead emissions and leaded petrol. In the upper catchment, pollution is totally controlled and dominated by large lead discharges from historic mining centres in the North Pennine Orefield (208Pb/206Pb, 207Pb/206Pb ratios range from 2.0744–2.0954 and 0.8413–0.8554 respectively). In the lower catchment, co-extensive with the Durham Coalfield and areas of high population density, pollution levels are lower and regionally more uniform. Isotope ratios are systematically higher than in the upper catchment (208Pb/206Pb, 207Pb/206Pb ratios range from 2.0856–2.1397 and 0.8554–0.8896 respectively) and far exceed values determined for the geogenic regional background. Here, the pollution is characterised by the atmospheric deposition of industrial lead and petrol lead. Lead derived from the combustion of coal, although present, is masked by the other two sources. Recent sediments from the main channel of the River Wear are isotopically indistinguishable from older, low order stream sediments of the North Pennine Orefield, indicating that contamination of the river by lead mining waste (up to several 1000 mg/kg Pb at some locations) continues to pose an environmental problem; a pattern that can be traced all the way to the tidal reach. Using within-catchment isotope variation and sediment lead concentrations, estimates can be made of the discharges from discrete mines or groups of mines to the overall level of lead pollution in the River Wear. As well as providing information pertinent to source apportionment and on-going catchment remediation measures, the database is a valuable resource for epidemiologists concerned with the health risks posed by environmental lead.

U2 - 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2009.05.041

DO - 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2009.05.041

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JO - Science of the Total Environment

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