Rg1 is a steroidal component in Panax ginseng, which increases high intensity exercise performance in humans. Here, we examined the effects of Rg1 supplementation on the dynamical changes of human muscle satellite cells following exercise. Twelve young men ingested Rg1 (5 mg) or Placebo (PLA) 1 h before exercise in a double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover design. Biopsy muscles were collected before, immediately after, and 3 h post-exercise. TNF-α mRNA increased and satellite cell number decreased immediately after exercise, followed by decreases in centrally nucleated myofibers and total glutathione 3 h post-exercise. Rg1 supplementation increased Myf5 mRNA and restored satellite cell number after exercise, and total glutathione and centrally nucleated myofibers 3 h post exercise. Rg1 had no significant effect on TNF-α mRNA response against exercise. The transient exercise response in suppressed centronucleation and satellite cell depletion which are reversed by Rg1 are not associated with TNF-α expression.