Abstract: Uncontrolled charging of electric vehicles (EVs) is expected to cause problems for power distribution networks as existing vehicles are continually being replaced by electric. Therefore, smart charging algorithms that prevent such problems will become necessary as uptake of EVs increases and they become more popular. Smart EV charging is not only useful to provide the necessary charge (energy) required by the user but may also be used to support the grid and protect battery health, which is investigated in this study. Factors that affect battery life are quantified and their impact on battery degradation and ability (of EV) to support the grid are analysed. Charging regimes that can meet the driver needs, provide grid support and protect the state of health of the battery are proposed in this study. The analysis presented demonstrates that smart charging that involves charging before departure, less frequent charging and limited vehicle-to-grid can prolong battery life compared with providing the same EV charge in an uncontrolled way. Thus, grid power is supported and battery life is protected by the proposed smart charging regimes.
Lacey, G., Putrus, G., & Bentley, E. (2017). Smart EV charging schedules: supporting the grid and protecting battery life. IET Electrical Systems in Transportation, 7(1), 84-91. https://doi.org/10.1049/iet-est.2016.0032