Studying the Effectiveness of Polyacrylamide (PAM) Application in Hydrocarbon Reservoirs at Different Operational Conditions

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Abstract

The water-soluble polymer PAM (polyacrylamide) is used in enhanced oil recovery (EOR) operations. It is pumped into water injection wells to increase the viscosity of the injected water and in turn to direct more oil towards production wells. This EOR process is proven to be sensitive to operational well conditions such as hydrocarbon reservoir temperature, as well as the salinity of the injected water and/or formation water. These operational conditions lead to technical challenges ranging from the solubility of PAM in injection water to the behaviour of PAM inside the reservoir. To gain a clear picture of the functionality of PAM in EOR applications, this report characterizes its behaviour of in terms of degree of hydrolysis and changes in solution viscosity determined using Perkin Elmer spectrum 100 Fourier transform infrared-Attenuated total reflection (FTIR)-ATR and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H NMR) and a Fann model 35 Couette and Cole Parmer rotational viscometer, respectively. Different shear rates were investigated to determine the effect of shear on PAM gel stability. Experiments were performed for PAM mixed with formation brine at 50, 70, and 90 °C for ageing times of up to 30 days. The results indicate that the degree of hydrolysis achieved after 30 days is much higher in saline solutions than in pure water, and that this effect is more pronounced at higher temperatures. For example, after 30 days at 50 °C, the hydrolysis level was observed to be 53%, rising to 65% at 70 °C and 75% at 90 °C in PAM mixed with brines. Similar trends were observed with viscosity, where lower viscosity was observed for samples at higher temperatures and salinities. It is thus reasonable to conclude that the degree of hydrolysis causes changes in the viscosity of the polymer gel, leading to a decline in its performance as it ages
Original languageEnglish
Article numberen11092201
JournalEnergies
Volume11
Issue number9
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 22 Aug 2018

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Hydrocarbons
Polyacrylates
Water
Viscosity
Hydrolysis
Recovery
Water injection
Salinity
Injection
Polymers
Gels
Oil well production
Brines
Viscometers
Nuclear Magnetic Resonance
Solubility
Viscosity Solutions
Temperature
Shear deformation
Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

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@article{9c5dd3f1458e455b8876a390c626376e,
title = "Studying the Effectiveness of Polyacrylamide (PAM) Application in Hydrocarbon Reservoirs at Different Operational Conditions",
abstract = "The water-soluble polymer PAM (polyacrylamide) is used in enhanced oil recovery (EOR) operations. It is pumped into water injection wells to increase the viscosity of the injected water and in turn to direct more oil towards production wells. This EOR process is proven to be sensitive to operational well conditions such as hydrocarbon reservoir temperature, as well as the salinity of the injected water and/or formation water. These operational conditions lead to technical challenges ranging from the solubility of PAM in injection water to the behaviour of PAM inside the reservoir. To gain a clear picture of the functionality of PAM in EOR applications, this report characterizes its behaviour of in terms of degree of hydrolysis and changes in solution viscosity determined using Perkin Elmer spectrum 100 Fourier transform infrared-Attenuated total reflection (FTIR)-ATR and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H NMR) and a Fann model 35 Couette and Cole Parmer rotational viscometer, respectively. Different shear rates were investigated to determine the effect of shear on PAM gel stability. Experiments were performed for PAM mixed with formation brine at 50, 70, and 90 °C for ageing times of up to 30 days. The results indicate that the degree of hydrolysis achieved after 30 days is much higher in saline solutions than in pure water, and that this effect is more pronounced at higher temperatures. For example, after 30 days at 50 °C, the hydrolysis level was observed to be 53{\%}, rising to 65{\%} at 70 °C and 75{\%} at 90 °C in PAM mixed with brines. Similar trends were observed with viscosity, where lower viscosity was observed for samples at higher temperatures and salinities. It is thus reasonable to conclude that the degree of hydrolysis causes changes in the viscosity of the polymer gel, leading to a decline in its performance as it ages",
author = "Kingsley Uranta and {Rezaei Gomari}, Sina and Paul Russell and Faik Hamad",
year = "2018",
month = "8",
day = "22",
doi = "10.3390/en11092201",
language = "English",
volume = "11",
journal = "Energies",
issn = "1996-1073",
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}

Studying the Effectiveness of Polyacrylamide (PAM) Application in Hydrocarbon Reservoirs at Different Operational Conditions. / Uranta, Kingsley; Rezaei Gomari, Sina; Russell, Paul; Hamad, Faik.

In: Energies, Vol. 11, No. 9, en11092201, 22.08.2018.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Studying the Effectiveness of Polyacrylamide (PAM) Application in Hydrocarbon Reservoirs at Different Operational Conditions

AU - Uranta, Kingsley

AU - Rezaei Gomari, Sina

AU - Russell, Paul

AU - Hamad, Faik

PY - 2018/8/22

Y1 - 2018/8/22

N2 - The water-soluble polymer PAM (polyacrylamide) is used in enhanced oil recovery (EOR) operations. It is pumped into water injection wells to increase the viscosity of the injected water and in turn to direct more oil towards production wells. This EOR process is proven to be sensitive to operational well conditions such as hydrocarbon reservoir temperature, as well as the salinity of the injected water and/or formation water. These operational conditions lead to technical challenges ranging from the solubility of PAM in injection water to the behaviour of PAM inside the reservoir. To gain a clear picture of the functionality of PAM in EOR applications, this report characterizes its behaviour of in terms of degree of hydrolysis and changes in solution viscosity determined using Perkin Elmer spectrum 100 Fourier transform infrared-Attenuated total reflection (FTIR)-ATR and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H NMR) and a Fann model 35 Couette and Cole Parmer rotational viscometer, respectively. Different shear rates were investigated to determine the effect of shear on PAM gel stability. Experiments were performed for PAM mixed with formation brine at 50, 70, and 90 °C for ageing times of up to 30 days. The results indicate that the degree of hydrolysis achieved after 30 days is much higher in saline solutions than in pure water, and that this effect is more pronounced at higher temperatures. For example, after 30 days at 50 °C, the hydrolysis level was observed to be 53%, rising to 65% at 70 °C and 75% at 90 °C in PAM mixed with brines. Similar trends were observed with viscosity, where lower viscosity was observed for samples at higher temperatures and salinities. It is thus reasonable to conclude that the degree of hydrolysis causes changes in the viscosity of the polymer gel, leading to a decline in its performance as it ages

AB - The water-soluble polymer PAM (polyacrylamide) is used in enhanced oil recovery (EOR) operations. It is pumped into water injection wells to increase the viscosity of the injected water and in turn to direct more oil towards production wells. This EOR process is proven to be sensitive to operational well conditions such as hydrocarbon reservoir temperature, as well as the salinity of the injected water and/or formation water. These operational conditions lead to technical challenges ranging from the solubility of PAM in injection water to the behaviour of PAM inside the reservoir. To gain a clear picture of the functionality of PAM in EOR applications, this report characterizes its behaviour of in terms of degree of hydrolysis and changes in solution viscosity determined using Perkin Elmer spectrum 100 Fourier transform infrared-Attenuated total reflection (FTIR)-ATR and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H NMR) and a Fann model 35 Couette and Cole Parmer rotational viscometer, respectively. Different shear rates were investigated to determine the effect of shear on PAM gel stability. Experiments were performed for PAM mixed with formation brine at 50, 70, and 90 °C for ageing times of up to 30 days. The results indicate that the degree of hydrolysis achieved after 30 days is much higher in saline solutions than in pure water, and that this effect is more pronounced at higher temperatures. For example, after 30 days at 50 °C, the hydrolysis level was observed to be 53%, rising to 65% at 70 °C and 75% at 90 °C in PAM mixed with brines. Similar trends were observed with viscosity, where lower viscosity was observed for samples at higher temperatures and salinities. It is thus reasonable to conclude that the degree of hydrolysis causes changes in the viscosity of the polymer gel, leading to a decline in its performance as it ages

U2 - 10.3390/en11092201

DO - 10.3390/en11092201

M3 - Article

VL - 11

JO - Energies

JF - Energies

SN - 1996-1073

IS - 9

M1 - en11092201

ER -