This brief offers a unique and innovative account of the role of internet and digital technologies in human smuggling and trafficking. It explores new illegal paths through the web by analyzing how traffickers and smugglers use the visible and dark web during different phases of the process, including recruitment, transportation, and exploitation. Featuring case studies from two European countries, Italy and the United Kingdom, it outlines the types of websites used in these processes, how they are used, and common behavior patterns. With a view of transnational criminal activities involving actors from individual criminal entrepreneurs to organized crime groups and fluid large criminal networks, this brief will be of use to law enforcement, researchers of trafficking and organized crime, and policy makers.
Papanicolaou, G., Antonopoulos, G., Diba, P., Baratto, G., Di Nicola, A., Martini, E., & Terenghi, F. (2020). Technology in human smuggling and trafficking: case studies from Italy and the United Kingdom. (SpringerBriefs in Criminology). Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-42768-9