The age estimation of blood stains up to 30 days old using visible wavelength hyperspectral image analysis and linear discriminant analysis

Bo Li, Peter Beveridge, William T. O'Hare, Meez Islam

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

23 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

A novel application of visible wavelength hyperspectral image analysis has been applied to determine the age of blood stains up to 30 days old. Reflectance spectra from selected locations within the hyperspectral image, obtained from a portable instrument, were subjected to spectral pre-processing. This was followed by the application of a linear discriminant classification model, making estimations possible with an average error of ±0.27days for the first 7days and an overall average error of ±1.17days up to 30days. This is also the first reported study of the determination of the age of fresh blood stains (less than one day old) with an error of ±0.09h. The studies have been made under controlled conditions and represent, at this stage, proof of concept results but also are the most accurate age estimation results for measurements between 0 and 30days reported to date. The results are consistent with well-established kinetic processes suggesting that the pre-processing stages described are revealing spectroscopic changes which are reliably following the time dependent oxidation of HbO2. The potential for parameterisation of environmental factors to make the method generally applicable at crime scenes is discussed, along with the developments required to further improve classification and to make the instrument genuinely portable.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)270-277
Number of pages8
JournalScience and Justice
Volume53
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Sep 2013

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