The effects of same-session combined exercise training on cardiorespiratory and functional fitness in older adults: A systematic review and meta-analysis

Christopher Hurst, Kathryn Weston, Shaun J. McLaren, Matthew Weston

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Abstract

Endurance and strength training are effective strategies for counteracting age-associated reductions in physical performance in older adults, with a combination of both exercise modes recommended to maximise potential fitness benefits. This meta-analysis sought to quantify the effects of same-session combined endurance and strength training on fitness in adults aged over 50 years. Five electronic databases were searched with studies required to include one of the following outcome measures: VO2peak, 6-minute walk test (6MWT), 8-ft Timed Up-and-Go (TUG) and 30-s chair stand. Separate random effects meta-analyses compared combined training with 1) no-exercise control, 2) endurance training and 3) strength training with probabilistic magnitude-based inferences subsequently applied. Twenty-seven studies involving 1346 subjects with a mean age of 68.8 years (range 54-85 years) were included in the analysis. The meta-analysed effect on VO2peak was a moderately beneficial effect for combined training compared to no-exercise controls (3.6 mL·kg-1·min-1; ±95% confidence limits 0.8 mL·kg-1·min-1) with additional increases for studies with greater proportions of female participants and shorter training interventions. Combined training also had small to moderately beneficial effects on VO2peak when compared to endurance training (0.8 mL·kg-1·min-1; ±1.0 mL·kg-1·min-1), 30-s chair stand when compared with strength training (1.1 repetitions; ±0.5 repetitions) and on TUG (0.8 s; ±0.7 s), 30-s chair stand (2.8 repetitions; ±1.7 repetitions), and 6MWT (31.5 m; ±22.4 m) when compared to no-exercise controls. All other comparisons were unclear. Same-session combined training can induce clinically relevant fitness improvements in older adults.
Original languageEnglish
Number of pages38
JournalAging clinical and experimental research
Early online date19 Jan 2019
DOIs
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 19 Jan 2019

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Resistance Training
Meta-Analysis
Exercise
Outcome Assessment (Health Care)
Databases
Cardiorespiratory Fitness
Walk Test

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title = "The effects of same-session combined exercise training on cardiorespiratory and functional fitness in older adults: A systematic review and meta-analysis",
abstract = "Endurance and strength training are effective strategies for counteracting age-associated reductions in physical performance in older adults, with a combination of both exercise modes recommended to maximise potential fitness benefits. This meta-analysis sought to quantify the effects of same-session combined endurance and strength training on fitness in adults aged over 50 years. Five electronic databases were searched with studies required to include one of the following outcome measures: VO2peak, 6-minute walk test (6MWT), 8-ft Timed Up-and-Go (TUG) and 30-s chair stand. Separate random effects meta-analyses compared combined training with 1) no-exercise control, 2) endurance training and 3) strength training with probabilistic magnitude-based inferences subsequently applied. Twenty-seven studies involving 1346 subjects with a mean age of 68.8 years (range 54-85 years) were included in the analysis. The meta-analysed effect on VO2peak was a moderately beneficial effect for combined training compared to no-exercise controls (3.6 mL·kg-1·min-1; ±95{\%} confidence limits 0.8 mL·kg-1·min-1) with additional increases for studies with greater proportions of female participants and shorter training interventions. Combined training also had small to moderately beneficial effects on VO2peak when compared to endurance training (0.8 mL·kg-1·min-1; ±1.0 mL·kg-1·min-1), 30-s chair stand when compared with strength training (1.1 repetitions; ±0.5 repetitions) and on TUG (0.8 s; ±0.7 s), 30-s chair stand (2.8 repetitions; ±1.7 repetitions), and 6MWT (31.5 m; ±22.4 m) when compared to no-exercise controls. All other comparisons were unclear. Same-session combined training can induce clinically relevant fitness improvements in older adults.",
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