The effects of same-session combined exercise training on cardiorespiratory and functional fitness in older adults: A systematic review and meta-analysis

Christopher Hurst, Kathryn Weston, Shaun J. McLaren, Matthew Weston

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Abstract

Endurance and strength training are effective strategies for counteracting age-associated reductions in physical performance in older adults, with a combination of both exercise modes recommended to maximise potential fitness benefits. This meta-analysis sought to quantify the effects of same-session combined endurance and strength training on fitness in adults aged over 50 years. Five electronic databases were searched with studies required to include one of the following outcome measures: VO 2peak, 6-min walk test (6MWT), 8-ft timed up-and-go (TUG), and 30-s chair stand. Separate random-effects meta-analyses compared combined training with (1) no-exercise control, (2) endurance training, and (3) strength training with probabilistic magnitude-based inferences subsequently applied. Twenty-seven studies involving 1346 subjects with a mean age of 68.8 years (range 54-85 years) were included in the analysis. The meta-analysed effect on VO 2peak was a moderately beneficial effect for the combined training compared to no-exercise controls (3.6 mL kg -1 min -1; ± 95% confidence limits 0.8 mL kg -1 min -1) with additional increases for studies with greater proportions of female participants and shorter training interventions. Combined training also had small-to-moderately beneficial effects on VO 2peak when compared to endurance training (0.8 mL kg -1 min -1; ± 1.0 mL kg -1 min -1), 30-s chair stand when compared with strength training (1.1 repetitions; ± 0.5 repetitions) and on TUG (0.8 s; ± 0.7 s), 30-s chair stand (2.8 repetitions; ± 1.7 repetitions), and 6MWT (31.5 m; ± 22.4 m) when compared to no-exercise controls. All other comparisons were unclear. Same-session combined training can induce clinically relevant fitness improvements in older adults.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1701-1717
Number of pages17
JournalAging clinical and experimental research
Volume31
Issue number12
Early online date19 Jan 2019
DOIs
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 19 Jan 2019

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