The effects of textured materials on static balance in healthy young and older adults: A systematic review with meta-analysis: A systematic review with meta-analysis

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Abstract

Background: Standing on textured materials can improve static balance, potentially by modulating somatosensory inputs from the soles of the feet.
Research Question: To synthesise and quantify the immediate effects of textured materials on static balance in healthy young and older adults.
Methods: Primary outcomes were the centre of pressure (COP) displacement and velocity, during eyes open and eyes closed conditions. Ten crossover studies (n = 318, 58% female) met the inclusion criteria. A random effects meta-analysis model derived pooled standardised mean differences (SMD; Hedges g) to quantify the effects of textured materials. Heterogeneity was quantified with the tau-statistic (τ). A 95% prediction interval quantified the likely range of true effects on COP outcomes in similar future studies.
Results: There was a small to moderate beneficial effect for textured materials vs control conditions in: COP displacement during both eyes open (SMD: 0.29; 95% CI -0.06 to 0.64; τ = 0.32) and eyes closed (SMD: 0.75; 95% CI 0.18 to 1.33; τ = 0.55). A trivial to small beneficial effect was observed in COP velocity during eyes open (SMD: 0.14; 95% CI -0.14 to 0.43; τ = 0.18) and eyes closed (SMD: 0.20; 95% CI 0.01 to 0.40; τ = 0.18) for textured materials. The 95% prediction intervals showed texture may not consistently provide beneficial results across studies for all outcomes: COP displacement EC (-0.61 to 2.12), EO (-0.54 to 1.12), COP velocity EC (-0.27 to 0.68) and EO (-0.44 to 0.73).
Significance: Overall, textured materials improved balance, but these effects were heterogeneous. This research may therefore inform applied investigations into balance improvements for healthy populations, for example, in functional movements and sports
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)79-86
Number of pages8
JournalGait and Posture
Volume71
Early online date17 Apr 2019
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 30 Jun 2019

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