The emergence of multidrug-resistant H. pylori poses a public healthcare threat, particularly in low-and middle-income countries. Recently, the World Health Organization has classified clarithromycin-resistant H. pylori as high priority in the research and discovery of novel antibiotics. This study was aimed to systematically review the prevalence of primary antibiotic resistance in H. pylori in Southeast Asian countries (SEAC) and to review current studies of antimicrobial peptides against H. pylori. We systematically searched through electronic databases of studies conducted on antimicrobial resistance of H. pylori in SEA countries. Furthermore, we searched articles that conducted studies on antimicrobial peptides, naturally occurring host’s defense molecules, against H. pylori. After a series of screening processes, 15 studies were included in our systematic review. Our analysis revealed that primary resistance of H. pylori to metronidazole, clarithromycin, and levoflox-acin were high in SEAC, although the primary resistance to amoxicillin and tetracycline remains low. Multidrug-resistant H. pylori are emerging in SE Asian countries. The antimicrobial peptides show promising antibacterial and antibiofilm activity against drug-resistant H. pylori. The research and discovery of antimicrobial peptides against H. pylori in SEAC will help in limiting the spread of antimicrobial resistance of H. pylori.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This study was supported by a grant from Ministry of Higher Education of Malaysiagrant no. FRGS/1/2019/SKK11/UKM/02/3 and Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM) under grant no600-RMC/DINAMIK-POSTDOC 5/3 (010/2020).
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