Inspired by the transport of organic matters and the update theories of branches, the artificial tree (AT) algorithm was proposed recently. This work presents an improved version of AT algorithm that is called the feedback artificial tree (FAT) algorithm. In FAT, besides the transfer of organic matters, the feedback mechanism of moistures is introduced. Meanwhile, the self-propagating operator and dispersive propagation operator are also put forward. Some typical benchmark problems are applied to test the performance of FAT. The experimental results have clearly demonstrated the higher performance of FAT compared with AT over the tested set of problems. In addition, some well-known heuristic algorithms and their improved algorithms are also applied to validate the performance of FAT, and the computational results of FAT listed in this study are the best among these algorithms. In addition, sensitive analyses on the specific parameters of FAT algorithm are carried out, and the performance of FAT is validated.