The analysis of the bacterial community within the soil using DGGE showed acrylonitrile (ACN) could lead to the selection of significantly similar communities. Moreover, Rhodococcus sp. AJ270 was successfully established in the soil community. High GC G+-bacteria also responded positively to ACN addition. Bioaugmentation or carbon addition had no impact on the rate or degree of ACN degradation. ACN could be readily degraded by the soil bacteria, however, the community structure was significantly affected by its addition as well as by the addition of carbon or Rhodococcus sp. AJ270. The bioaugmentation of the soil with this strain was successful, in that the organism became established within the community. ACN addition to a soil produces statistically significant changes in the bacterial community.