The shopping list in goal-directed shopping: scale development and validation

Sohel Ahmed, Ding Hooi Ting

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


This paper aims to develop and validate a shopping list scale in a goal-directed shopping context based on three complementary study phases (and literature review): shopper interviews (exploratory stage to identify the items and dimensions), a pilot study with 162 respondents for scale purification, and a refined questionnaire administered to 213 respondents (to establish reliability, convergent, discriminant and nomological validity). An exploratory factor analysis shows that the items load onto four factors: memory aid, money controller, shopping controller, and deviation controller. We performed confirmatory factor analysis to test the model and check for reliability and validity of the anticipated scale. The model fit and reliability levels are acceptable, as are the convergent and discriminant validities of the scale. The scale is a second-order factor, thus satisfying nomological validity. The shopping list scale should be of interest to researchers and retail managers in exploring factors and outcomes of goal-directed shopper behaviour.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)319-342
JournalService Industries Journal
Issue number5-6
Publication statusPublished - 11 Oct 2018


Dive into the research topics of 'The shopping list in goal-directed shopping: scale development and validation'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this