A longitudinal study (N = 774) explored the short and longer-term impacts of anti-LGBT hate crime experienced directly, indirectly and through the media. In the short term, being a victim (direct) or personally knowing of a hate crime victim (indirect) was positively associated with vulnerability, emotional responses and behavioural intentions after reading about a hate crime. Direct victims were also less empathic towards other victims and engaged in more victim-blaming. A structural equation model showed direct experiences (via personal vulnerability and empathy) and media experiences (via group-threat and victim-blaming) to be cross-sectionally associated with behavioural intentions. Media experiences also had lasting demobilising impacts on actual behaviours, again serially mediated by group-threat and victim-blaming. The findings highlight the emotional and behavioural impacts of hate crimes on both direct victims and on the wider LGBT community. They also raise questions about media reporting of hate crimes and the role of victim blaming.
Paterson, J., Brown, R., & Walters, M. A. (2018). The short and longer term impacts of hate crimes experienced directly, indirectly and through the media. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin. https://doi.org/10.1177/0146167218802835