Energy storage is recognized as a key technology for enabling the transition to a low-carbon, sustainable future. Energy storage requires careful management, and capacity prediction of a lithium-ion battery (LIB) is an essential indicator in a battery management system for Electric Vehicles and Electricity Grid Management. However, present techniques for capacity prediction rely mainly on the quality of the features extracted from measured signals under strict operating conditions. To improve flexibility and accuracy, this paper introduces a new paradigm based on a multi-domain features time-frequency image (TFI) analysis and transfer deep learning algorithm, in order to extract diagnostic characteristics on the degradation inside the LIB. Continuous wavelet transform (CWT) is used to transfer the one-dimensional (1D) terminal voltage signals of the battery into 2D images (i.e., wavelet energy concentration). The generated TFIs are fed into the 2D deep learning algorithms to extract the features from the battery voltage images. The extracted features are then used to predict the capacity of the LIB. To validate the proposed technique, experimental data on LIB cells from the experimental datasets published by the Prognostics Center of Excellence (PCoE) NASA were used. The results show that the TFI analysis clearly visualised the degradation process of the battery due to its capability to extract different information on electrochemical features from the non-stationary and non-linear nature of the battery signal in both the time and frequency domains. AlexNet and VGG-16 transfer deep learning neural networks combined with stochastic gradient descent with momentum (SGDM) and adaptive data momentum (ADAM) optimization algorithms are examined to classify the obtained TFIs at different capacity values. The results reveal that the proposed scheme achieves 95.60% prediction accuracy, indicating good potential for the design of improved battery management systems.
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