Total phenolic content, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-microbial potentials of Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea L.) seed extract

Samson A. Oyeyinka, Aminat O. Abdulsalam, Amina M. Ahmed El-Imam, Adewumi T. Oyeyinka, Omotola Folake Olagunju, Fausat L. Kolawole, Abimbola K. Arise, Emmanuel O. Adedeji, Patrick B. Njobeh

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


Purpose: Bambara groundnut is a hard-to-cook grain and this has limited its utilisation to some extent. However, the grain is a good source of phytochemicals with antioxidant properties. This study investigated the total phenol content, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-microbial potentials of hot-water extract of four Bambara groundnuts differentiated by their seed coats (cream, black, maroon and brown). Design/methodology/approach: Bambara grains were heated in water at a ratio 1:20 (w/v) and the grains brought to boiling in a controlled water bath. As soon as boiling started, the temperature was reduced to 90 °C to reduce the evaporation rate. The extracts were withdrawn within 30 min, which was chosen from a preliminary study where beyond this time, the extract was drying off and the amount of solution obtained was not sufficient for the initial run. Grain colour and composition and antioxidant, antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory properties of the extract were determined using standard methods. Findings: Protein (20.57–26.31%) and carbohydrate (55.43–61.09%) were the major components of the grain. Grain type and boiling time generally affected the total phenolic content of the extract. Cream Bambara displayed substantially lower total phenolic content at all boiling times compared with the maroon, brown and black Bambara groundnuts. The total flavonoid contents and total phenolic contents of the Bambara groundnut extracts were dependent on the boiling time and type of grain. The extracts showed no activity against Candida albicans, but the maroon coat Bambara demonstrated a peak inhibition of 6.00 mm against Escherichia coli. The total phenolic, flavonoid contents and the antioxidant properties of the grains generally followed the order Maroon > Black > Brown. Originality/value: This study has demonstrated the possibility of promoting the use of Bambara groundnut beyond the current level of usage by using simple processing method of boiling to extract phytochemicals with medicinal properties.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3421-3435
Number of pages15
JournalBritish Food Journal
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - 22 Oct 2021
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Conflict of interest : All authors declare that there are no conflicts of interest.Authors wish to thank the Faculty of Science-University Research Committee Fellowship of the University of Johannesburg, South Africa.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021, Emerald Publishing Limited.


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